Cervical cancer takes 3-4 place in terms of the prevalence of malignant processes among women. In the early stages, the disease is 100% curable.
The Papanicolaou liquid cytology method (Pap test / PAP test) is recommended by the World Health Organization as the “gold standard” for diagnosing cervical cancer. Its efficiency is 95%, while the sensitivity of traditional methods does not exceed 40% in some cases. The Pap test helps to identify the disease even when clinical symptoms are still absent. Cervical cancer has a long development period – on average 10-15 years, which means that a serious illness can be avoided! Since the moment when the Pap test was introduced into medical practice (in 1950), the death rate of women from cervical cancer has decreased by 10 times.
Who is the Pap test recommended for?
Most often, cervical cancer occurs in women aged 45-55 years, in postmenopausal women, after the age of 65 years. However, there is evidence of an increase in the increase in incidence among women under 30 years of age. Moreover, in 18% of this age group, after screening, the disease is detected at a late stage, when treatment may not be as effective.
The purpose of the Pap test is to detect cancer in situ, that is, stage 0 cancer. This helps to prescribe an effective “saving” treatment, to shorten its time, and to avoid complications.
For the study, a scraping is taken from the surface of the cervix and the cervical canal, as well as from the transformation zone, in which most often – up to 80% of the pathological process occurs, which is an advantage of the study by liquid cytology.
Papanicolaou cytological classification:
- 1st grade – normal cells;
- 2nd class – a change in the shape of cells caused by an inflammatory process in the vagina and / or cervix;
- 3rd class – there are single cells with an anomaly of nuclei and cytoplasm (suspected malignant neoplasm);
- 4th class – there are some cells suspicious of malignancy;
- Grade 5 – A large number of typically cancer cells are present.
The Pap test is recommended for all women of reproductive age from 21 years of age. It is recommended to perform it every two years, necessarily in the presence of gynecological pathologies of a viral nature (genital warts, genital herpes), prolonged use of contraceptives and hormonal drugs, the appearance of atypical discharge from the genital tract, infertility. If the results are negative, the Pap test is performed once every three years.
How to prepare for the Pap test?
It is recommended to take the analysis no earlier than on the 5th day of the menstrual cycle and no later than 5 days before the onset of menstruation. On the eve and on the day of the study, do not douch the vagina, and exclude the use of fat-containing vaginal preparations (suppositories, creams, vaginal tablets) in 2-3 days. During menstruation, as well as earlier than 24-48 hours after sexual intercourse, intravaginal ultrasound and colposcopy, a smear is not performed!
To eliminate the risk of developing this serious disease, take care of your health, make an appointment with a gynecologist at CITILAB and perform a Pap test based on the liquid cytology method – 90-69-502 – Cytological examination of scrapings of the cervix, cervical canal, vagina with staining according to Pap test (material taken into liquid transport medium).