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The pronounced proliferation of the endometrium against the background of systemic immunosuppression and enhanced angiogenesis, accompanied by a local inflammatory reaction, are the essence of the disease. Functional endometrium penetrates by invasion into the myometrium (adenomyosis), spreads from uterine cavity to uterine pipes, ovaries and along the peritoneum of the Douglas space. It is possible to transfer endometrioid tissue with blood and lymph into distant organs and tissues (eyes, navel). Of course, for such expansion, the endometrium should be endowed with a strong proliferative potential and a high sensitivity to estrogen stimulation.

At the cellular level, a sequence of events is established, leading to the development of a high intracellular concentration of estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of the disease. This process is based on gene polymorphism (DNA structure variability) that provide high activity of various cytochromes and transferases. At the first stage, active local production of the aromatase enzyme (cytochrome CYP19) takes place in endometrial cells, which stimulates the conversion of C-19 steroids into estrogens. The latter through the system of cyclogenases induce the production of prostaglandins, which, in turn, support the high activity of aromatase. Under these conditions, the level of estradiol receptors in endometrial cells increases, which provide intracellular intake and intranuclear translocation of this steroid. Estradiol provides a high proliferative potential of the endometrial epithelium. Endometrial cells proliferate, forming foci of ectopy and invasion into underlying structures, which leads to pain and general emotional and physical discomfort. Menstrual irregularities and primary infertility often accompany the disease, but are not necessarily attributes of suffering.

Endometriosis is a disease with a pronounced estrogenic dependence. This is confirmed by clinical observations. The development of the disease is noted in the reproductive period, its peak is at the age of 25-35 years. The positive effect of progestin therapy used in adequate doses was noted, which leads to a significant alleviation of the symptoms of the disease and a regression of endometrioid heterotopies in the form of hypoplasia epithelium with a gradual replacement of its fibrous tissue. The appointment of gonadotropin agonists, which significantly reduces the estrogenic background in the patient’s body and causes a condition of amenorrhea, also allows achieving remission of the disease.

Clinical manifestations of the disease can not be combined with certain disorders in the immune system of the body. Indeed, endometriosis is associated with changes in both T-cell and humoral immunity. Despite the fact that the peritoneal fluid contains a large number of immunocompetent cells, there is not an inhibition but an endometriosis stimulation. Reduced activity of a large number of leukocytes leads to the inability to eliminate endometrioid cells. And simultaneously observed proliferation of endometrial epithelium under the influence of growth factors, cytokines and estrogens leads to the progression of the disease.

Macrophages are the main cells of innate immunity, the activity of which depends on the outcome of inflammation and many other cellular reactions at the systemic level. Another important function of macrophages in endometriosis is the removal of cellular debris and cells that have undergone apoptosis. In other words, here macrophages play the role of “scavengers” that remove the resulting inert protein from the body and the ectopic endometrium. Macrophages are the most numerous cell types found in peritoneal fluid in patients with endometriosis. However, their function of “scavengers” in these patients is sharply weakened. One of the reasons for this is a disturbance of the interaction of macrophages with the extracellular matrix. When this interaction is not observed, macrophages lose the ability to play the role of competent “scavengers”.

Another factor regulating the intensity of cellular and humoral immunity is lymphocytes. The greatest changes in the pool of T-lymphocytes in the peritoneal fluid in endometriosis were noted. There is an increase in the number of both helpers and suppressors. According to immunohistochemical analyzes, the number of T-lymphocytes determined in the stroma of the ectopic endometrium, in women who did not suffer from endometriosis, it was increased in comparison with the number of T cells in the proliferative and secretory eutopic endometrium. The latter allows to draw a conclusion about the key role of the T-system of immunity in “restraining” the proliferation of endometrial epithelium and its “expansion” into adjacent organs.

For the sake of objectivity, it should be noted that the “multifactor” in explaining the etiopathogenesis of endometriosis undoubtedly disguises the fact that until now the true mechanism that triggers the development of the disease remains undisclosed.

Benign hyperplasia of myometrium (uterine myoma)

A significant number of studies have been devoted to various aspects of the pathogenesis of uterine myoma, including the characterization of hereditary factors, the evaluation of disorders of the pituitary-ovarian function, and the data on morphological and histochemical changes revealed in myometrium and ovaries in patients. A significant number of recent studies (which is continuously increasing) is devoted to the quantitative determination of hormonal receptors for estradiol and progesterone in tumor tissue and in myometrium, allowing us to clarify the mechanism of the effect of estradiol and progesterone at the cellular level.

Clinical observations of the stimulating effect of estrogens on the development of the uterus in its infantilism, supported by experimental data showing the possibility of induction of fibroids with prolonged administration of estrogens, served as convincing evidence for the role of hyperestrogenia in the development of benign hyperplasia of myometrium. According to our research, clinico-morphological signs of hyperestrogeny were revealed in 853 patients with uterine myoma at a high rate: acyclic uterine bleeding (37.9%), later onset of menopause (after 56 years) – 35.1%, hyperplasia of hormone-producing ovarian tissue – follicular ovarian cysts in the reproductive period (30.6%), stromal hyperplasia in pre- (52.2%) and postmenopausal (62.7%). Estrogenic type of colpositologic reaction in postmenopause (30.6%) and obesity (54.2%) are noted as a marker of increased estrogenic background due to metabolic (aromatization) conversion of androstenedione into estrone in adipose tissue, which increases the estrogen pool in the patient’s body.

Thus, modern ideas about the mechanism of development of hyperestrogenism are not limited only to analysis of the violations that cause anovulation. It is shown that there are several facts that clearly show that hyperestrogenism can be considered as a factor in the pathogenesis of muscle hyperplasia in a certain number of patients with uterine myoma. This is, first of all, epidemiological data, where there is a temporary coincidence of peaks in the incidence of hyperplastic processes of the myometrium and endometrium, for which the role of excessive estrogenic influence is not contested.

Further, the data on local hyperestrogeny in the system of uterine arteries feeding the myometrium and tumor, as well as the increased content of cytosolic receptors for estradiol found in myoma tissue, are convincing.

Finally, the hormone dependence of uterine fibroids is proved “by contradiction” with clinical observations of the possibility of partial or complete regression of the “tumor” when the patient is prescribed a gonadotropin (zoladex) agonist or progesterone receptor blocker (Myfolian).
Strictly speaking, uterine myoma is a monoclonal proliferative that retains sensitivity to hormonal influence and consists of phenotypically altered smooth muscle cells of myometrium that immunohistochemically correspond to such benign entities as fibroma, lipoma or keloid scar. Apparently, therefore, in the present there is a decrease in unjustifiably high oncologic alertness to the uterine myoma, as it is proved that this cell proliferate has a malignancy potential comparable with the normal myometrium.

Tadalafil è terribile per la salute degli uomini?

Tra le vacanze di Natale si è appreso che Rospotrebnadzor ha iniziato a ritirarsi dal fatturato additivi biologicamente attivi “Sealex forte” e “Ali caps”, progettati per rafforzare la potenza maschile. Il motivo – nel presunto contenuto di sostanze tadalafil nei preparativi. Questa sostanza non è stato specificato durante la registrazione di integratori alimentari, in modo da riconoscere il falso.

In precedenza, la stessa sorte toccò altri supplementi per gli uomini – “Tongkat Ali Platinum” e “Tongkat Ali Platinum forte”, che ha anche stato presumibilmente trovato farmaceutica tadalafil ingrediente. Di conseguenza, Rospotrebnadzor ha vietato la registrazione statale di questi supplementi.

La domanda principale di farmaci – la presenza del principio attivo, non sono sostenuto al momento della registrazione, come nel tadalafil non è niente di pericoloso – è contenuta in quasi tutti Badakhshan per migliorare le prestazioni sessuali maschili.

Così, alla fine di aprile 2015 Associazione dei produttori di additivi alimentari biologicamente attivi (BAA SRO NPP), insieme con l’Unione delle Organizzazioni Professionali e farmaceutiche Farmacia Guild fatto acquisti di prova e indagato integratori che sono pubblicizzati come naturali potenza stimolante. Per l’analisi selezionati campioni di sei marchi tra i primi 10 in termini di vendite in Russia per il 2014. I risultati di esami di laboratorio hanno dimostrato che le loro formulazioni contengono la prescrizione di farmaci non dichiarati, componenti sintetici, e nella maggior parte dei casi si è trattato di tadalafil.

Perché è necessario

La sostanza tadalafil è stata sviluppata per trattare la disfunzione erettile dalla società farmaceutica Icos Corporation, che è stata successivamente assorbita dalla società americana Eli Lilly. Il farmaco è andato al mercato con il marchio “Cialis” e divenne uno dei principali concorrenti del famoso “Viagra” dal farmacista Pfizer. Un altro farmaco per la potenza – “Levitra” – ha inventato un altro rappresentante di “big pharma”, la società Bayer. Tutti questi farmaci hanno uno scopo – aumento della potenza, sebbene i principi attivi nei preparati siano diversi (sildenafil e vardenafil).

Tadalafil differisce durata di azione, l’effetto desiderato è ottenuto grazie alla capacità di una sostanza per rilassare i muscoli e aumentare il flusso di sangue negli organi riproduttivi per quasi 36 ore. Per questo motivo, il farmaco è diffuso tra la popolazione maschile di vari paesi, tra cui la Russia. Oggi i tablet sono venduti liberamente in quasi tutte le farmacie del paese.

Recentemente guadagnando popolarità e integratori alimentari con effetti simili. Così, secondo il DSM Group, come tre farmaci inclusi nel 2014 nella top 7 più venduti integratori alimentari in Russia per migliorare la potenza, “Sealeks”, “Ali tappi” e “tongkat” – hanno rappresentato il 11,5 per cento delle vendite a livello nazionale di integratori alimentari .

Secondo il capo di integratori SRO NPP Leonid Maryanovsky, integratori alimentari volume di mercato per la potenza è di circa cinque miliardi di rubli all’anno. Solo nel mese di marzo, secondo l’agenzia di marketing DSM Group, specializzata nel monitoraggio del settore farmaceutico, i russi hanno acquistato 968 000 pacchetti “Sealeks forte”, 31.000 confezioni di “tappi ali”, 13.000 confezioni di “Vuk-wook,” otto mila pacchetti di “Lovelace” .

E con vendite così enormi, non ci sono state lamentele sull’effetto di questi additivi. Rospotrebnadzor farmaci interessati solo dopo l’appello … BAD SRO NPP – una sorta di integratori alimentari produttori dell’Unione (più su questo nella pubblicazione di “non sta in piedi”). Secondo i rappresentanti dell’organizzazione, il tadalafil farmaco quando la ricezione incontrollata può causare l’arresto cardiaco, e quindi dovrebbe essere venduto da prescrizione. E ‘interessante che la stessa “Cialis”, così come “Viagra” a “Levitra”, possono essere facilmente acquistati al banco. Inoltre, il produttore di “Cialis” – la società Eli Lilly – a pochi anni fa ha annunciato l’intenzione di fare della droga OTC.

Effetto di tadalafil sulla salute umana è basso, ha detto “” MD Benjamin Kurchiashvili: “Come con qualsiasi farmaco, ha effetti collaterali di sostanze farmaceutiche, ma non sono così tanto – per esempio, può essere mal di testa e mal di schiena.” Le sue parole confermano lo studio degli scienziati russi, pubblicato nel 2011 nel “Russian Medical Journal”. Secondo i suoi risultati, il tadalafil combatte efficacemente l’impotenza e ha pochi effetti collaterali. 268 uomini hanno preso parte all’esperimento. “Non sono stati riscontrati effetti collaterali gravi durante lo studio”, ha detto lo studio. I più comuni sono stati dispepsia (cattivo funzionamento dello stomaco), mal di testa, dolore, ‘sintomi influenzali”, l’ipertensione (pressione), nasofaringite (infiammazione del naso e della gola). Non si parlava di alcun arresto cardiaco.

“Anche se in Badakhshan insieme con tadalafil a base di erbe è stato scoperto sintetica, non ci possono essere problemi in termini di agenti di sicurezza,” – ha detto il professor del Dipartimento di organizzazione e gestione nel campo dei farmaci prima MGMU Sechenov Elena Lesiovskaya.

Secondo lei, l’intero gruppo di farmaci per la disfunzione erettile e integratori alimentari appropriate non sono degni di nota per i suoi effetti collaterali. Essi utilizzano spesso gli uomini oltre 45 anni di età che possono avere problemi con il sistema cardiovascolare, e l’uso eccessivo di stimolanti in questo caso possono dare effetti negativi. Tuttavia, secondo Elena Lesiovskaya, da parte del paziente di essere responsabile per l’uso di farmaci che non sono essenziali. “Inoltre, come possiamo vedere dalle statistiche, gli stessi consumatori per molti anni hanno votato per la qualità di integratori alimentari, come crescere le loro vendite, – dice Lesiovskaya. – E ‘improbabile che gli uomini avrebbero continuato l’uso di sostanze che non sarebbe stato permesso di effettuare o causare disagio “.

Con chi è la domanda

Secondo varie fonti, la capacità del mercato russo di farmaci per la disfunzione erettile è 12-13 miliardi di rubli all’anno, di cui relativi Supplementi rappresentano oggi per sei o sette miliardi di rubli. E, secondo gli esperti rispondenti”, il divieto di utilizzo di sostanze note bioadditives causata solo da ragioni economiche.

“Supplementi annunciato con forgiato, e che l’intero sistema si basa attacchi a specifiche società”, – dice Lesiovskaya. Sono d’accordo con lei e Benjamin Kurchiashvili – a suo avviso, per tutto l’hype vale farmgiganty che hanno enormi risorse, sia finanziarie e amministrative.

La stessa opinione e il costruttore è caduto in disgrazia “Sealeks forte” e “Ali CAPSA” – il presidente RIA “Panda” Dmitry Dergaciov sostiene che essi spostano dal mercato farmacia nella guerra competitiva. Dopo tutto, un pacchetto di Sealex (quattro capsule) costa meno di una compressa di Cialis. A favore di questa versione e così cospicua in tutta questa storia il ruolo di SRO NPP BAA. Come detto in un’intervista marzo “” fondatore “EPWD Pharma” (ex fornitore sostanza proibita anche “Tongkat Ali Platinum”) Eugene Feshter poco conosciuto qualche anno fa SRO intensificata nel 2015, dopo che un membro dei suoi fondatori è diventata Pfizer (- Bayer nelle file del partenariato c’è un altro giocatore sul mercato).

Da quel momento, la SRO iniziò a inondare la Duma di Stato e il Comitato Investigativo con lettere che chiedevano il divieto degli integratori alimentari. Forse questa è una coincidenza. Come già scritto da, Pfizer riceve annualmente circa due miliardi di dollari dalla vendita del Viagra, ma nel mercato russo la sua posizione si indebolisce ogni anno: se nel 2010 il fatturato di Viagra nel nostro paese era 2, 7 miliardi di rubli, poi nel 2015 – 2,3 miliardi. Nella confezione, il calo è ancora più evidente: nel 2010 sono state vendute 3,85 milioni di unità e nel 2015 solo 1,96 milioni (dati dell’agenzia di marketing DSM Group, specializzata nel monitoraggio dei settori farmaceutici).

Il brevetto per l’uscita di “Viagra” dal gigante americano termina nel 2019 e il brevetto per “Cialis” scadrà nel 2017. Quindi, non è rimasto molto tempo per “schiumare la crema”, e il posto sotto il sole è costoso – miliardi di rubli all’anno, che gli uomini russi sono pronti a pagare.

Winter food. What to look for in the cold?

How to change your diet in winter, so as not to get sick? Do I need to eat more calories and fat, are fresh vegetables useful?

In winter, our food inevitably changes – this is due to the climate. At this time of the year we eat less fruit, vegetables and greens. What is sold, in quality is inferior to summer gifts of nature, but it is expensive. Many people switch to carbohydrates, potatoes and pasta, plus pickles, marinades, jam. There is even a myth: traditionally they have been eating for centuries, and this is our food, our organism has adapted to it, there is no reason to buy fresh vegetables and fruits in winter.

This is erroneous for many reasons. First, one of the most important rules of modern nutrition is a compulsory 500 grams of vegetables and fruits a day. This dose should be consumed regardless of the season, that is, in winter, too. Secondly, this myth does not quite correspond to historical reality. Our ancestors did not really have fresh vegetables and fruits, but they did not eat modern pickles with marinades and jams – they just could not cook.

The Truth About Jam

Modern jam began to be actively made only in the second half of the XIX century, when sugar was cheap, and therefore affordable. Before that, from various kinds of fruits and berries, they made pastilles without sugar. It has many benefits and especially a lot of pectin. It normalizes digestion, lowers cholesterol in the blood, protects against cancer, atherosclerosis and many other diseases. Many fruits and berries were dried, such blanks are also very useful. Jam made, but on honey. Firstly, it is more useful than on sugar, and secondly, it was not very much eaten, honey was always not the cheapest product.

Under the yoke – then useful

Vegetables, as well as many fruits and berries used to be canned in the open way, under yoke. From cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage and many other vegetables and mushrooms, they made pickles and sugars, fruits and berries – mochea. Despite the different names, according to the technology of production, they were fundamentally the same products, they all went through the process of lactic fermentation. And they are all much more useful than modern sterilized canned food and marinades (there is much less harmful salt in them and there are useful probiotics – lactobacillus bacteria). Such traditional billets are not better than fresh fruits and vegetables, but, in fact, they can compete with them in the winter. Add to this the variety of blanks – it’s not only cucumbers and tomatoes, which are mostly canned today. Then the method of fermentation harvested all available vegetables, fruits and berries. They made food varied and provided a lot of useful antioxidants, vitamins and other nutrients, which we so lack today.

The rule of 500 grams

The World Health Organization actively promotes consumption of at least 500 grams of vegetables and fruits daily. For this purpose, WHO has a slogan: “5 times a day!”. These are 5 daily servings of fruits and vegetables, each weighing about 100 grams. Many people think that this is very much. This is not true. Count: one mandarin weighs 80-100 grams, the average orange – 150-200. It is good to eat salad for lunch and dinner, as well as a vegetable garnish, cabbage soup, possibly some other fruit, plus a small addition of vegetables to different dishes, as well as spices and herbs for seasoning. So you easily dial and even exceed the daily portion even in winter. But you need to choose the right gifts of nature. Not only fresh fruits, vegetables and greens are useful, but also the following products:

  • all frozen vegetables, greens, fruits and berries;
  • lecho, tomatoes in its own juice, tomato paste and mashed potatoes;
  • tomato and vegetable juices without added sugar;
  • canned green peas, beans (including pods), corn, etc. billet.

You can eat, but limited – because of the maintenance of a decent amount of salt (especially for cores) – the following blanks:

  • traditional pickles made under the yoke (sauerkraut, cucumbers, mushrooms, garlic, etc.);
  • traditional tinctures (tomatoes, apples, berries);
  • vegetable caviar (zucchini, eggplant, etc.).

To the number of useful vegetables, fruits and berries do not include canned pickles, marinades and jam, and include them in compulsory daily 500 g is not necessary.

These are products for occasional use – under the mood, on a holiday, etc.

The cardiologist, the doctor of medical sciences, the professor, the head of the department of clinical functional diagnostics and the scientific secretary of the Moscow State Medical-Stomatological University named after. A. Yevdokimova Yuri Vasyuk:

– We underestimate that cold winters are very dangerous for people with hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

Such weather contributes to the emergence and aggravation of respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, provokes heart attacks, strokes and hypertensive crises. People with hypertension need to closely monitor their blood pressure and it is extremely important to eat right – first of all, to limit the intake of salted and animal fats.

In recent years, when baptismal bathing in ice water became popular, young men with severe pneumonia often came to our clinics.

The case history is stereotyped – plunged into the hole, drank to warm 100 grams, and soon fell ill. So do, of course, do not need.

Alcohol expands the surface vessels, causing a deceptive sensation of heat, but in fact because of this, the heat loss of the body is greatly increased. As a result – hypothermia with severe inflammation of the lungs or other acute illness of the respiratory system.

Is there more fatty or not?

This is one of the main issues of winter nutrition. We are sure that fat helps keep warm in cold weather. But, on the other hand, we know perfectly well that fat, butter and fatty meat are harmful to the vessels and waistline. How to be?

Here is what the doctor-psychoendocrinologist and the president of the Russian Diabetic Association Mikhail Bogomolov advises in this regard:

– Indeed, fats are good for warming up, it’s true. But, I think, for many it will be a surprise that not only animal fats act this way, but also vegetable ones that are healthy. The fact is that fats break down into substances that cause a very slight muscular tremor, it is so weak that we do not even notice it. But at the same time, a large amount of heat is released, which helps us to keep warm in the cold. It is better to use a mixture of different vegetable oils, today they are sold a lot. This mixture does not need to be cooked, it is perfect for salads and for filling ready-made dishes. Very good oily fish, especially from cold northern seas. Do not forget about the various seafood and seaweed. All these seafood contain iodine, which also helps to keep warm in the cold. It is needed for thyroid hormones. They increase the metabolism, and as a result, the body releases more heat.

Main winter product

The cod liver claims this role. And there are many reasons for this. First, it is rich in useful omega-3 fatty acids. They protect the vessels from atherosclerosis, and in winter, when the food is more fatty and high-calorie, this is very important. Secondly, the cod liver is a champion in the content of vitamin D. It is important for health in general, and in winter especially. At this time, its synthesis in the skin practically ceases, since the winter sun is very weak. Therefore it is necessary to receive it with products. And the cod liver is ideal for this. Get a habit of keeping 1-2 cans with these cans at home. Do not be stingy, buy the best – from whole pieces of liver made in the sea (this is indicated on the label). And 1-2 times a week, eat about 1 teaspoonful. It is not necessary anymore, since it contains a lot of vitamin D. Do not forget about other products with vitamin D. These include: egg yolk, dairy products and beef liver.

Approximate winter menu per day


Scrambled eggs with fried onions (or garlic).


Salad from radish with sour cream.
Baked herring, potatoes in uniform with vegetable seasoning.

Afternoon snack

Coffee with cream.


Tea with lemon.

Late Dinner

An Apple.
Kefir with the addition of dry greens.

How to cook?

Try to make any additive to any dish from vegetables, spices and other condiments. This can be done already while eating, or it is possible during cooking.

More often use tomato paste and mashed potatoes. If they are not, you can cook on tomato juice.

When preparing salads from cabbage, be sure to suppress it and let it stand for 15-20 minutes, so that it launches the juice. Just do with onions and garlic. At this time, the synthesis of bioactive substances sharply increases in them. If these components are subjected to a temperature treatment, do the opposite: cut them immediately before cooking.

Carrots and beets cook whole, so they store more useful substances.

Potatoes, cook in a peel, rinsing well with a brush, before boiling or baking.

5 products to support immunity during the season of colds


It is considered the best product for the treatment and prevention of influenza and colds. And microbes and viruses are afraid not only of garlic eaten. Finely chopped and diluted in an apartment garlic neutralizes them with one of its aromas.


Ginger tea has not only a warming, but also a disinfectant and antiseptic effect. In addition, ginger tea accelerates metabolism and helps to quickly get rid of the number of kilograms collected during the winter holidays.


The champion in the content of vitamin C, from the lack of which almost everyone suffers in winter. Ascorbicum in sauerkraut is larger than in lemons, oranges and black currant (30 mg per 100 g). Cardiologists respect sauerkraut for high potassium content. It normalizes the heart rate and blood pressure. And oncologists consider it to be the main product for the prevention of breast cancer. Another value of cabbage is the high content of dietary fiber that improves intestinal peristalsis (prevention of constipation caused by a sedentary winter lifestyle).


The only fruit that does not deteriorate in the cold, but only becomes more delicious. The main value of persimmon is the high content of iodine, from the lack of which all the inhabitants of the central strip of Russia suffer. Bright orange color – a sign of high content of beta-carotene (the elixir of youth and the source of longevity). Thanks to the unique combination of vitamins C and R, the persimmon strengthens the walls of the vessels and helps to avoid the winter red “mesh” on the cheeks and nose. And pectin improves digestion.


This marsh beauty is not accidentally called the northern lemon and the juvenile berry. Cranberries are a storehouse of organic acids and minerals (natural antioxidants). Due to the high content of tannin, cranberry juice quickly churns out the temperature. Cranberry juice is considered a preventive against infectious diseases, and when treated with antibiotics enhances their effect. Cranberry is a unique remedy for the diseases of the genitourinary system. Useful berry and hypertensive patients – with her help you can quickly lower blood pressure.

Nourishing and effective diets: 4 options

If you need to lose weight, but you are not going to starve, nourishing diets will help. Yes, such diets exist! Of course, here too, there will be restrictions, but will not be hungry, and extra pounds will go away. Here are four different, but effective and nutritious diets, as reported by the Internet publication for girls and women from 14 to 35 years

Protein-vegetable diet

Protein helps to get rid of hunger for a long time, and vegetables will help to adjust the digestive process and avoid constipation. In addition, a wide variety of vegetables will help saturate the body with vitamins and minerals.

From the menu it is necessary to exclude salt, sugar, cereals, pastries, potatoes. Naturally, it is desirable to extinguish or cook fish and meat, you can bake, but do not fry.

What can you eat on this diet? Fish and meat (of course, lean), eggs, cheese, cottage cheese, mushrooms, as well as any vegetables, fruits (except bananas), honey, milk. You can drink juice, green tea, coffee and mineral water. Follow the diet should be for a week.

Here is an example menu:

∙ In the morning – cottage cheese, tea, a spoonful of honey;
∙ Snack – kefir or mineral water;
∙ Lunch – fish, stewed mushrooms and salad, juice;
∙ Afternoon snack – fruit or dried fruit;
∙ Dinner – omelet of two eggs, salad and milk.

During the diet, you need to drink plenty of clean water. The last meal should be at 7 pm, not later. It is very desirable to add diet to exercise. And remember that for more than two weeks the diet can not be respected, even if you are feeling well.

Russian diet

This diet should be eaten five times a day. You can observe it even for two months, it does not harm your health. For two months the body will get used to eating properly, and it will be possible to continue to eat healthy food safely.

The diet prohibits the use of spicy and fatty sauces – mayonnaise, ketchup, alcohol, fatty foods, sugar, salt, smoked products. What can you eat? Any porridge is allowed (pearl barley and buckwheat are especially welcomed), the first dishes are vegetable soups, low-fat fish and sometimes you can eat baked meat, vegetables in any form (stewed, fresh, pickled), compotes, decoctions and fruit drinks.

Here is an approximate diet menu:

∙ Breakfast – cottage cheese with honey or buckwheat with cabbage salad, tea or coffee;
∙ Snack – a vegetable or a fruit, you can also grab a slice of veal and cottage cheese;
∙ Lunch – lean borsch (soup) and salad or boiled chicken and salad with sauerkraut, apple;
∙ Afternoon snack – fruit salad;
∙ Dinner – boiled fish and a salad of beets and prunes or vinaigrette, pear and yogurt.

Meat and fish can be boiled, stewed and baked. Roasting in soups can not be done, the maximum that can be done is to hold onions with carrots on very low heat until soft. Drinking during the diet can be green and black tea, coffee, kefir and milk.

Two-week diet

The name of the diet indicates the timing of its compliance. The essence of the diet – complex carbohydrates for breakfast, proteins and vitamins – for lunch and light protein supper. In general, the diet allows you to consume fruits, vegetables, lean meat, fish, sour-milk products, porridges.

Here’s the approximate menu:

∙ In the morning – any cereal and fruit, as well as coffee or tea;
∙ Second breakfast – fruit or yogurt;
∙ Lunch – meat and non-starchy vegetables stewed or salad, compote;
∙ Afternoon snack – baked apples;
∙ Dinner – fish (seafood) or cottage cheese and a large portion of vegetables.

Porridge should be boiled on water and do not add butter. As for meat, bake it or simmer, after preparation it is possible to fill with lemon juice and salt. Non-mashed vegetables are carrots, celery, any cabbage, zucchini, pumpkin, turnips, lettuce, greens, bell peppers, tomatoes. In the evening you can eat not only foods rich in animal protein, but also plant – lentils, beans, mung beans. But do not interfere with dairy products with fish or seafood.

Before each meal, it is advisable to drink a glass of clean water. Before going to bed, you can drink kefir if you really want to eat.

Cereal diet

Naturally, the basis is porridge. They can be anything: rice, millet, buckwheat, barley, oatmeal. It is desirable to change porridge every day. They should be consumed in the morning for breakfast. Of course, instant porridges use
can not

Another diet allows you to eat citrus, vegetables, greens, cottage cheese, yogurt, milk and yogurt (of course, dairy products should be low-fat). Perhaps the menu will not be very diverse, but the feeling of hunger will not exactly bother.

Sample menu:
∙ In the morning – porridge, milk, apple and tea or coffee;
∙ Dinner – vegetable soup and again porridge, compote of pears and apples;
∙ Dinner – cottage cheese, cereal, fruit.

Half an hour before a meal, drink water. It will reduce appetite. Sugar and salt are not recommended. You can add berries, fruits or greens to the porridge. As for salads, you can add spicy herbs and sprinkle with lemon juice, this will improve the taste of the dish even without salt. Observe this diet should be within a week.

What kind of diet to choose, it’s up to you. The main thing is that during losing weight you feel good.

How to eat right to lose weight

Nutrition for weight loss plays a huge role. But the sphere of fitness deliberately supports a complex approach, which is simply not necessary for a sluggish newcomer.

In fact, losing weight is very simple, if you know the basic rules. Simple things work, and it does not make sense to try something complicated while the simple works.

The simplest steps on the planet for weight loss, in order of importance:

  1. Learn the rate of calories and create a calorie deficit
  2. Learn the norm of protein
  3. Learn the fat rate
  4. Learn the norm of carbohydrates

Step 1: Create a calorie deficit

Fat is stored energy. The only way to make the body use it is to create a need. The need for waste of supplies appears when energy ceases to arrive with food every day in sufficient quantities.

Energy is measured in calories, and all food brings calories. The organism takes as much as it needs, the rest is put aside for a rainy day. If a rainy day comes, stocks begin to be used.

So the only way to get rid of fat is to get less energy (calories) with food. This is the deficit of calories – alpha and omega of weight loss. You can eat nutrition as you like, right and clean, but if you do not have a calorie deficit, i.e. you get more than you spend, you will not lose weight. Read more about the energy balance here.

There are many different ways to create a calorie deficit.

1. The most obvious is to simply reduce the total amount of food you are accustomed to. That is, all the same, but half as much. Less food – fewer calories, and it works great.

2. You can change the quality of food: replace fatty foods with fat, fatty meat – lean. Sugar substitute for sweeteners. Dietary products are more difficult to overeat. And here, not the quality of food and special “clean” foods are the cause of losing weight, but the calorie deficit created by them.

3. Another way is to start eating more protein and less fatty and carbohydrate food. Protein food (meat, poultry, fish, cottage cheese) is good for savoring and controlling appetite. And this is again the issue of calorie deficit: not the protein has magical fat burning properties, but the calorie deficit created with it.

4. Do not change food, but increase physical activity, that is, again create a calorie deficit, only, unlike previous approaches, not reducing the “arrival”, but increasing the “expense”. The problem is that the number of calories that can be spent on training, the beginner is small. The only people who can burn tons of calories in training are experienced athletes, but they usually do not need it. Beginners do not burn as many calories as simulators and different wrist devices show. Therefore, limiting calories in food and increasing activity will work best.

5. The most difficult for a beginner, but the most accurate and quickest-yielding method is to count calories and maintain a food diary in any application for a smartphone. Here you can afford a variety of products, and even a little harmful every day, if everything fits into the daily calorie rate.

People who lose weight without counting calories, and oppose the energy balance, still lose weight with the help of energy balance. To lose fat, you have to spend more or eat less. Most likely, this is not what most people want to hear, but it is so.

How many calories do you need?

In general, 10-12 cal / lb is a good starting point for fat loss (in order to convert your weight to pounds, multiply it in kilograms by 2.2).

Note: this is just a starting point, and calories should always be adjusted based on real changes. Some people with a high level of activity may need more calories for weight loss, and those who lead a sedentary lifestyle – less. In today’s world, most people have a very low level of daily activity (office, work at a computer, a car). Some particularly inactive people may need only 8 calories per pound.

Do not overestimate your daily activity. We all move very little, and standard three-time workouts a week do not cover that minimum of daily activity that everyone needs.

Step 2: find out the protein norm

After the total number of calories, the most important aspect of losing weight – there is enough protein.

First, the protein protects against loss of muscle mass, and muscle protection is the main goal on the diet after losing fat, otherwise thin, but the person left without muscles will look like the former, but in miniature.

Secondly, the protein permanently creates a feeling of satiety. It is digested and absorbed for a long time, helps to control the level of glucose in the blood. This means that the feeling of hunger will not come sharply and strongly.

In general, people with large excess weight tend to lose less muscle mass than lean ones, so they do not need a lot of protein to support muscles. As soon as a person starts to become slimmer, the requirements for protein amount increase. An additional factor is activity: regular exercise also increases the protein’s rate.

Athletes have long been using a recommendation of 2.2 grams of body weight on a diet, and this is a good starting point. But, as noted above, slim athletes on a diet should increase the amount of protein, and here 3.3 g / kg per weight of dry body weight (body weight minus the weight of fat) can be a good option. To do this, you need to know your percentage of fat, subtract it from the total weight, and all calculations do already on the resulting “fat-free” weight

For people who are overweight and without activity (or with minimal activity), a starting point of 2.2 g / kg may also be sufficient.

 Step 3: find out the fat rate

Pay special attention to fat is for several reasons.

First, to provide the body with a sufficient number of essential fatty acids (omega-fats), which are very important for health. They reduce inflammation, improve the sensitivity of cells to insulin and can help in controlling appetite. And if omega-6 fats are supplied in sufficient quantities with food from vegetable oils, then omega-3 fats are almost all in short supply. At the same time, omega-fats of linseed oil are absorbed very poorly, so if you eat a little fatty fish, it makes sense to think about supplements.

Secondly, fat-free diets are very difficult to observe because of the constant strong sense of hunger and lack of taste. Fats make the food tastier. And, like proteins, they prolong the feeling of satiety, slowing the emptying of the stomach. Studies have shown that a moderate amount of fat keeps the blood glucose level more stable, and, apparently, it is also related to a slowdown in the emptying of the stomach.

Sources of fats: oils, nuts, seeds, fatty fish, avocados, olives and olives

The starting point for fats: 0.48-0.72 g / kg body weight.

Step 4: Carbohydrates

Calories, proteins and fats are the three most important aspects of a diet. After determining the norms of calories, protein and fat, the remaining “free” calories account for carbohydrates. That’s where the diet becomes more complicated: the amount of carbohydrates depends on the level of activity, sensitivity to insulin, personal preferences.

An active person needs more calories (and hence carbohydrates), less active – less. A slender person on a diet can eat more carbohydrates (2-4 grams per kg of weight), a person with obesity – less because of a poor sensitivity to insulin (but not less than 100 grams per day).

All the rest – the time of food intake, the combination of products among themselves, the number of meals, supplements and dietary supplements – plays a very small role.

Full want to lose weight faster

The demand for ways to lose weight faster and without violence against oneself is very great. Demand, as you know, gives rise to proposals. They are widely known (advertising!), But, as a rule, are not properly justified. Often such proposals are simply incorrect. Here with one such method we will begin our consideration.

“Medical Newspaper” on January 29, 1993 published an article by corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the head of the Center for Dietetics of the Ministry of Health of Russia MA. Samsonov “If you want to become an Apollo.” The subtitle of the article says: “The second half of the XX century for countries with a highly developed economy is characterized by a change in the structure of morbidity. Among pathologies, a large group, classified as metabolic diseases, diseases of impaired metabolism. In their frequency, obesity is dominant among them. ”

In addition to the recommendations of MA. Samsonov, already considered in the previous chapters, there is another recommendation in this article on the wide use of sugar substitutes: “There were a lot of lovers of delicious confectionery products, so it remained. And although most people can no longer afford to pamper themselves, cakes and cookies are bought up quickly. It is necessary to produce more confectionery and drinks made with sorbitol and xylitol, aspartame “.

Recall that sorbitol, xylitol, aspartame are sugar substitutes, facilitating the situation of patients with diabetes. Satisfying the habitual need of man for sweet, these substances do not require insulin to transfer them to the liver and temporary storage in the liver in the form of glycogen, as required by glucose. These sugar substitutes in the human body do not generally function as glucose and do not turn into glycogen. Consequently, sugar substitutes are not involved in the formation of metabolic saturation. But this is not the main thing. It is important that they do not participate in the filling of the liver cells (as glucose does in the form of glycogen) and thereby participate in the formation of premature hunger (“empty liver”) and overeating. Therefore, the recommendation of M. Samsonov is in principle erroneous.

Even earlier, on October 2, 1991, the newspaper Trud published a report on the same topic: “Long-term fasting, the consumption of artificial sugar substitutes, the rejection of carbohydrate-containing products – all these modern means of fighting overweight are not so effective. This conclusion was made by a well-known Viennese expert on the study of food products and their influence on the metabolic processes in the human body Bernhard Ludwig. This doctor said that artificial sugar substitutes not only do not contribute to weight loss, but rather cause a constant hunger in a person, which leads to excessive consumption of food. ”

Let’s return to the article of M. Samsonov. In it there is one more recommendation – observance of the necessary motor mode: “How to achieve that people with overweight and obese patients follow dietary recommendations, the motor regime? With the help of training healthy and sick rules for rational curative and preventive nutrition and the regime of life. ”

This refers to the motor regime. Very often, along with recommendations for increasing the motor regime, maintaining a strengthened regime of physical exercises, the recommendations of applying massage, visits to steam baths and saunas are side by side. But in 1995, advertisements surpassed the boldest plans of dietitians. Instead of increasing the motor regime, applying massage and strengthening the regime of physical exercises, it turns out that it is enough to lie and lose weight with the help of the “Miostimulator” of the firm “Trihedron Electronics”, the expert of which is Professor A.N. Vetkin. It is stated that the “Myostimulator” … “acts by bioelectronic impulses on muscle tissue, reducing them without any effort on the part of the person. And because working muscles need food, they destroy subcutaneous fat.

But physiology and biological chemistry for some reason believe that the muscles do not eat fat, but glucose: “The decomposition of carbohydrates in the cell occurs in two ways: aerobic – with sufficient supply of cells with oxygen and anaerobic – with its lack. … The anaerobic pathway of decay … is characteristic mainly for muscle tissue. It starts by activating glucose with ATP …

… As it was said, the anaerobic process prevails in the muscles. With and active work, a lot of lactic acid accumulates, causing muscle fatigue. To restore the working capacity of muscles, it is necessary to release them from lactic acid, which is achieved by bringing it into the blood, with which it enters the liver. There, under anaerobic conditions, lactic acid is included in the process of gluconeogenesis and turns into glucose, which is again delivered to the muscles by the blood and is included in metabolic processes “(MV Ermolaev, LP Il’icheva, Biological Chemistry, 1989).

A.V. Loginov points out: “… Despite a number of complex chemical transformations, the costs of an organism in muscle contraction are reduced to the loss of a part of glycogen.”

It turned out that with the help of an uninformed expert Professor A.N. Vetkina firm Triadr Elektroniks calmly releases gullible fat people who want to lose weight, not from excess fat, but from glycogen (glucose), as well as money and faith in human decency.

We quote the article “Slenderness – Advertising or Facts” (short translation from the West German magazine “Bild der Wissenschaft” in the journal “Inventor and rationalizer”, July, 1974).

“Each advertising publication concerning the slenderness of a figure is almost always accompanied by miraculous promises. This time our publication contains only facts. The facts are harsh and not pleasant for everyone.

Unpleasant fact number 1: there are only two radical means to become (and remain) orderly: there is less and more to move.

The fact number 2 says: we are all people, all people, so not everyone can refrain from eating. And for business people, the additional difficulty is connected with the fulfillment of secular duties: in fact, there is less – it means less drinking, that in society – at receptions, conferences, when signing agreements – is not always possible. Physical exercises require even more will and time. In the vast majority of people, these exercises so stimulate the appetite, that they think it best to give up gymnastics altogether.

Perhaps, try more pleasant ways to become slim – to steam in a sauna (dry Finnish bath) or to massage? Alas, again the unpleasant truth: the weight that you dump when sweating in the sauna, will come back to you once you quench your thirst. This is the inevitable reaction of the body. ”

Well, what about the soothing massage? Calm it will bring you, weight loss – no. Nobody has yet proved that massage promotes harmony. The magazine of consumers “DM (also publishing facts, not promises) in its August issue for 1973. informs: “Slimness can not be achieved either with the help of an ordinary masseur, or with mechanical vibro-massage devices. This is the opinion of Dr Staecher from the Heidelberg sports community of doctors and other authoritative specialists. ”

From the publication “Pais Semanal” (Spain): “Many people continue to believe that exercise is a way to lose weight. Indeed, any physical exercise contributes to the expenditure of calories; As a result, the size of fat cells decreases … However, as practice shows, if we consider the question from the positions of the already mentioned law of the balance of consumed and consumed calories, it becomes clear that physical exercises help very little. As a result of cycling for an hour consumes 468 calories (here and in this quotation, calories mean kilocalories – M. Zh.); One hour of swimming gives an expenditure of 675 calories, per hour of playing tennis – 425 calories. However, it takes only a few seconds to get 400 grams of chocolate by eating 100 grams of chocolate. ”

We will specify: 100 grams of chocolate give not less than 500 kcal.

We quote further. “According to doctors, there are very few people who can explain the presence of excess weight could be an incorrect metabolism or hormonal diseases. The problem here is overeating and misunderstanding of the need to correct the existing situation. Unwillingness to change their habits, the difficulties associated with such changes, and are the reasons that people readily pay for medical and paramedical help. ”

In order to enable the reader to compare contemporary scientific views on obesity and seemingly very recent views of medicine on this problem, we quote an excerpt from the pre-war textbook (1937): “Obesity (adipoґ & sitas). Often inherited, a special metabolic disorder is transmitted, consisting in a decrease in oxidative processes; in such people, especially when there is a lot of food and alcohol (beer) and with a sedentary lifestyle, most of the fat is not oxidized to water and carbon dioxide (as is normal), but is deposited in the omentum, subcutaneous tissue and other places. Sometimes obesity depends on inadequate secretion of hormones with glands of internal secretion (for example, obesity in eunuchs, in women after cessation of menstruation). Excessive fat deposition in the pericardial bag causes shortness of breath and heart beat; obese people are soon tired, often suffer from constipation and hemorrhoids.

The treatment consists in limiting the intake of food and drink to a minimum (alcoholic beverages are forbidden), as well as in increasing metabolism, which is achieved by gymnastics, walking, massage, thermal procedures (hot baths, mud treatment cause intense sweating, which leads to weight loss). Limit also the duration of sleep.

Sometimes pituitrin and other organopreparations are used. At the same time, it is necessary to monitor the weight of the body all the time. ”

It is not difficult to trace changes in views on the problem of obesity in the last 60 years, but even then the main principle of treatment was to limit the intake of food.

So, the problem of completeness, obesity – in overeating and the need for violence over their habits and the prevailing life stereotype to eliminate the effects of overeating and preventing it from happening henceforth.

Those who want to lose weight with open arms are met by numerous assistants and advisers. Some of them may be interested in distributing audio cassettes and records with Mozart’s music, judging by the following message: “nutritionists from Cambridge and Oxford universities advise: eat Mozart’s music. The experiments showed that the melodies of the great composer significantly reduce the appetite. ”

But what kind of advertising is met by those who want to lose weight, at first glance, good advisers: “By spending huge amounts of money on various imported fat burners, many women who want to lose weight have returned to classical methods based on using their own capabilities. This is a rational diet, exercise, some physiotherapy. ” The reader already knows that a rational diet is not a way to lose weight, but is a way not to grow stout. The price of physical exercises in matters of weight loss is also well known. They were mentioned above in this chapter. But here “some physiotherapeutic procedures” are added. What are these wonderful procedures? It’s only “the elimination of fat deposits with the help of vacuum massage – correction of the figure (elimination of fat deposits in problem areas).”

Massage of fat is a common fiction, “auricular noodles.” The massage was already mentioned in this chapter.

And how do you, dear reader, like the pill “Ultravit Slank” (ultra-thin slender)? You are assured that this is not a medicine, but a parapharmaceutical Dutch remedy, which has 34 years of experience. This assurance relieves from medical examination – this is not a cure. In these pills, there are seaweeds, lecithin, aloe, and color of thorn, and leaves with dandelion root, and lactose, and magnesium stearate, “which promote optimal processing of proteins and fats normalizing blood pressure.”

Total 1-2 pills before meals and during meals 3 times a day, washed down with a glass of water, and for 25 days you lose 8 kg of body weight.

How do these very simple and essentially insignificant pills that do not have contraindications and side effects so magically operate? In general, such pills can not have any positive effects on the body, they differ little from the pills-placebo (pacifiers). So how do they still work?

Immediately there is an idea of deceit. But there is no deceit. Advertising explains (see “St. Petersburg Vedomosti” for December 24, 1994): it is necessary, taking pills, to eat only plant foods, resolutely restrict the consumption of fats, it is allowed to add little eggs, cottage cheese and sour cream (instead of butter).

In that case, why do we need the pills themselves? Without them, with a strictly vegetative and limited diet, obesity will indeed pass. This is so true. And the pills, apparently, are the company’s black humor. Like “Narzan” as a contraceptive: if you drink it not before, not after, but instead of conception.

But the most original advertisement was placed in the “St. Petersburg Vedomosti” on October 29, 1994, the company “Post Shop”. The “biomagnetic agent for weight loss” is advertised. A new miracle – biomagnetism against fatness and obesity: “You can lose 10-15 or even 30 kg due to the amazing discovery of Chinese medicine. For a day – 2 kg, for two days – 3 kg. ” Fantastic! Down with scientific natural science! “… The method was invented 3000 years ago by Chinese healers. Do not swallow pills, do gymnastics. The body will go through the process of destruction of the fat layer, normal metabolism will be restored. 97.5% of positive results “.

Pay attention to the huge amount of energy and ingenuity of such helpers and advisors of fat people, to their indomitable desire to release the overweight … no, not from obesity, but from money, and this is usually done in the most shameless manner. And these, so to speak, helpers flourish due to the lack of necessary knowledge among people who are concerned about excess kilograms.


Meldonium news

The Federal Medical and Biological Agency has found a replacement for melondonium

According to the head of the FMBA, “meldonium is no longer relevant,” he does not yet name the name of the new drug because of the copyright law.

The Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) has found a replacement for meldonia, which surpasses the drug in its properties, said the head of the FMBA, Vladimir Uiba.

“We found a replacement for muldonia, several drugs not classified as a prohibited list (the World Anti-Doping Agency) and working better,” Uiba told reporters on Wednesday.

“Meldonium is no longer relevant,” the head of the FMBA said.

Uyba added that he can not yet announce the names of the drugs due to copyright law.

Meldonium is banned from January 1, 2016

The World Anti-Doping Agency has contributed mills to the list of banned substances since January 1, 2016. In that year, many Russian athletes doping tests for this drug were positive, resulting in the athletes were disqualified.

Later, WADA, after conducting intermediate studies meldonia, stated that the concentration of this drug less than one microgram per milliliter in doping tests, handed in before March 1, 2016, is an acceptable indicator. Thus, WADA allowed that athletes who had traces of meldonia in such concentration did not take the drug intentionally after January 1, when it became a prohibited substance.

Russian President Vladimir Putin said in October that Russia needed to put an end to WADA in the Meldonian scandal. “As for this meldony of the unfortunate, it’s a very dark story, we all know, and experts say: it does not give advantages in sports wrestling, it only supports with high loads of cardiac muscle.” We need to work, including colleagues from WADA , and close with them this problem, “Putin said on October 11, 2016 at a meeting of the Presidential Council on Physical Culture and Sport.

Russian doctors have proposed WADA to resolve meldonium

The Federal Medical and Biological Agency is discussing with the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) the possibility of withdrawing multon from the list of banned drugs, the head of the FMBA, Vladimir Uiba, said on Thursday.

“Today we are with WADA in a dialogue about the need to change attitudes towards meldonia and remove them from the list of banned ones.It does not meet any of the requirements of the WADA code,” Uiba said in an interview with Interfax on the fields of the International Arctic Forum.

According to him, FMBA studies showed that 180 days after a single course of a one-month course of meldonia, the body remains in a concentration of substance exceeding the permissible requirements of WADA.

“In six months, this concentration is exceeded,” Uyba said.

“We made a computer model of withdrawal from the muldonia organism, it is withdrawn in a single application within a year and a half,” Uiba said, noting that if athletes have taken muldonium for several years, it can be deduced multiple times of admission.

FMBA will demand from WADA to return to the revision of the ban on meldonium

The Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBA) intends to raise the issue of withdrawing meldonia from the list of prohibited preparations of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).

“We signed a protocol with WADA to study the pharmacokinetic properties of meldonia.” In April this year, summing up the results of the protocol, “said the head of the FMBA, Vladimir Uiba, at a press conference.

He said that as a result FMBA will demand from WADA to return to the issue of revising the ban on meldonia.

He stressed that the content of meldonia in the blood exceeds the permissible levels even on the 180th day after its intake, and the task of the drug is to remain in the blood and be consumed as necessary, therefore it can remain in the body of the athlete for a year, two, and three.

WADA has contributed mills to the list of banned substances since January 1, 2016. After in the first months of the year the meldonia traces were found in the doping tests of dozens of athletes who claimed that they had last taken it in 2015, WADA started additional studies to establish the timing of removal of the drug from the body.

On April 13, WADA released a statement in which it was reported that the content of less than 1 microgram of meldonia in doping tests of athletes surrendered before March 1, 2016 is an acceptable indicator.

The transition period, during which a small amount of meldonia in the body of athletes is acceptable, will end on September 30, 2016. From October 1, any content of meldonia in doping tests of athletes will be considered banned.

Splitting of fats in the body. What promotes and products for the cleavage of fats

The internal environment of the human body is the place of continuous flow of various chemical reactions. They are carried out in the framework of metabolism, in other words – metabolism. One of the metabolic reactions is called the cleavage of fats. Let’s consider it in more detail.

General information on the phenomenon of fats in the body

The breakdown of fats in the body is a fairly complex process, consisting of several stages.

It begins with the fact that fats in the food fall into the gastrointestinal tract, where they are exposed to enzymes and bile. As a result, lipids are cleaved to form qualitatively new components: fatty acids and glycerin. At the end of this phase, these fractions are absorbed by the mucous membranes of the digestive organs.

At the second stage, the previously split fats are transformed into new lipids. Here the key role is played by the small intestine, where this is the place to be. These organic substances with blood flow are transported to the organs that need fat. When there is an excessive amount of lipids, the problem is easily solved with the use of special cells called adipocytes – the excess fat is simply deposited in them. It is worth noting that a certain value in this process also has an enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

What happens to those lipids that settle in adipocytes? They continue to share, respectively, their number increases. The result of this phenomenon is the growth of subcutaneous fat.

In order to reverse this process, that is, to force adipose tissue to decrease in size, the human body needs to switch to a regime of energy deficiency. In this case, lipids pass into the mitochondria for subsequent decay. This chemical reaction is known by the term “lipolysis”. Products processed as a result of this process, are outside the human body, and the released energy goes to the needs of the body.

I must say that not always lipolysis proceeds according to the above algorithm. If there is a hormonal and endocrine imbalance, this process acquires the features of pathology.

The benefits of splitting fats in the body

The breakdown of fat cells is immensely important for human health.

First, this metabolic reaction fulfills an energy function. Fat is a powerful source of energy and vitality, and when these resources are released, a mass of fatty acids and other nutrients is formed. All this together is of no small importance for the restoration and maintenance of normal health and working capacity of the body. In addition, subcutaneous fat, given its optimal size, allows a person to do without food for a long time if an unfavorable situation is created. In this case, both the physical form and activity remain at the same normal level. The main thing is to make sure that there is not an overabundance of stored lipids.

Secondly, it is a structural function. Fats having a complex chemical structure are part of the cell membrane and, thus, determine the impermeability of the shell for foreign agents and factors. This property – the fate of glycolipids, phospholipids and other similar substances.

Thirdly, some fat appears in the human body as a regulator of cellular metabolism and the general vital activity of the cell, stimulant and direct trigger mechanism in the process of hormone production.

Fourth, lipids tend to protect the body cells from damage of a mechanical nature, and the whole body as a whole from hypothermia.

What contributes to the breakdown of fats in the body

To normalize and accelerate the process of lipid decomposition in one’s own organism, it is necessary to turn some usual actions into useful habits.

  • Thoroughly chew food. The fact is that the process of digestion and, accordingly, the splitting of fats begins not in the stomach, but in the oral cavity. The better and you grind it with teeth, the more complete will be the processing of food in the organs of the digestive system, and, therefore, and the lipolysis will be more successful with the benefit of the figure.
  • Do not eat fat alone – combine them with vitamins and mineral compounds. This is especially true for saturated fats. If you eat boiled chicken meat or baked in the oven fish, then simultaneously send into the stomach and a serving of vegetable salad. If you enjoy the taste of a cake, add slices of fruit or berries to a sweet product. So you can increase the digestibility of lipids by your body, their cleavage and prevent obesity.
  • Drink more fluids throughout the day. Adhere to the following norm: for 1 kg of body weight should account for 30 g of water. In the absence of diseases of the kidneys and bladder, you can even slightly increase the indicated volumes of consumed liquid. The general recommendation, not tied to the body weight – 1,5-2 liters of water daily.
  • Lead an active lifestyle. That is, emphasis should be placed on regular and very intensive physical training. Sport increases the metabolic rate, directly the process of splitting fats, and additionally it also gives a lifting effect.
  • Use to improve the course of the lipolysis reaction, sports fat burners and products of the pharmacological industry. The first work basically only in conditions of the raised physical activities, but the second do not depend on the similar approach.

Products for the breakdown of fats in the body

Fat loss is also facilitated by frequent consumption of certain food products.

  • Grapefruit. Its chemical composition creates favorable conditions for lowering blood glucose levels and the hormone responsible for fat burning, insulin. Drink immediately after each main meal a glass of freshly squeezed grapefruit juice or eat 1/2 citrus, and the speed of your metabolism will increase many times, and the body will successfully get rid of the processed products.
  • A pineapple. It is an excellent fat burner due to the content of bromelain. By the way, the latter also contributes to the digestion of proteins. In order to improve the cleavage of fats, a fresh juicy fruit is recommended to eat after a dinner meal.
  • Papaya. The exotic product is rich in plant enzyme papain. Like bromelain, this substance helps to adjust the process of splitting lipids and proteins. Similarly, eat papaya after eating.
  • Raspberries. Vitamin berry contains a large number of natural enzymes that trigger the fat decomposition process in tissues. In addition, frequent raspberry raspberry helps to release the body from excess fluid and toxins. In addition to fresh berries you should eat raspberry jam or jam.
  • Horseradish. The share of this plant falls stimulation of digestion, improvement of intestinal peristalsis, preventing deposition in tissues of slags. However, horseradish should not be used by people who have stomach problems.

I wish you success in the fight against excess weight!

Buckwheat flour – benefits and recipes for losing weight

Cereals are an integral component of a healthy balanced diet. They are also important for losing weight. Products of this category are good in that they can be used by us in various forms. These are cereals, from which it is easy to prepare a hearty porridge or a nutritious side dish; and flakes, and muesli, and flour. Here’s the last type of food raw materials, namely buckwheat flour, let’s talk in more detail.

What is buckwheat flour?

Buckwheat flour, of course, is derived from buckwheat, or more precisely – from buckwheat by grinding or grinding solid particles of cereal. Unlike wheat flour and rye flour, which is used in cooking everywhere, buckwheat flour and dishes made from it are the lot of gourmets and people who show special concern for their own figure. Baking from it just melts in the mouth and has a delicious taste. In Japan, for example, buckwheat flour produces a popular national delicacy – soba noodles, used with meat, slices of vegetables and rich broth.

Composition and dietary properties of buckwheat flour

Buckwheat flour is characterized by chemical contents, which are characterized by a variety of nutritional components. First of all, it is rich in proteins (15%) and carbohydrates (82%), the lion’s share of which belongs to the category of complex sugars. There is very little fat in this flour – just under 4%. Of the basic organic compounds of the product should be allocated more fiber, ashes.

The vitamin-mineral composition of buckwheat flour has similar features to that of buckwheat itself. The product is saturated with the following biologically active components: group B vitamins, E and a large amount of antioxidant routine. Buckwheat flour contains useful amino acids: glycine, lysine, etc. The number of mineral compounds of the product even outweighs the amount of biologically active substances even slightly: in addition to the products common in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron products, the product can boast the presence of rarer zinc, selenium , molybdenum, manganese, copper, fluorine, cobalt.
Buckwheat flour is a very high-calorie product. In 100 g of this food plant raw material contains about 350 kcal. However, such an impressive energy value does not detract from the dietary properties of delicacies. They are due to the presence in the product:

  • slow sugars, capable for a long time and qualitatively satisfy the feeling of hunger;
  • proteins, stimulating the growth of muscle tissue;
  • vitamins and antioxidants, helping to get rid of excess fat in the body.

In addition, dishes made from buckwheat flour excellently cleanse the internal environment of the body from toxins and toxins – including, at the cellular level. All this testifies to the great possibilities of the product for the acquisition of harmony.

Benefits of buckwheat flour

Delicacy derived from buckwheat, has on human health the most that there is a positive impact, and simultaneously in many aspects.

Dishes from buckwheat flour strengthen immunity, thereby at times suppress the sensitivity of the body to various pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Buckwheat foods raise the level of hemoglobin in the blood, reducing the manifestation of anemia, and the degree of “bad” cholesterol, on the contrary, is reduced. Thanks to the regular intake of buckwheat flour components into the body, the tissues of the body are saturated with oxygen, which causes their breathing to become more active, the metabolism and other biochemical reactions accelerate, and the overall well-being of the gourmet improves.

The presence in the buckwheat flour of vitamin P (routine) allows you to normalize blood pressure by introducing this product into the diet. Among the useful properties of delicacies are also the elimination of edema by removing excess fluid from the body, digestive problems, including constipation and heartburn due to the excellent assimilation of the product. Calcium, phosphorus and proteins, which are rich in buckwheat flour, strengthen hair, bones, nails, teeth, positively affect the mobility of joints. Both the nervous and cardiovascular systems are affected by the beneficial effect of the plant product, since the B vitamins and the already mentioned above routines struggle with insomnia, depression, increase the stress resistance, reduce the risk of heart disease, make the walls of the vessels stronger and more elastic, improve the nerve conduction . Vitamin R, in addition, also dilutes the blood, preventing the formation of blood clots in the capillaries.

The content of antioxidants in buckwheat flour makes it indispensable for people who have poor eyesight and are highly likely to develop cancer. The same vitamins P and E, as well as microelements of selenium, manganese, copper and zinc protect the tissues from cancer cells. They slow down the aging process, helping to look young and beautiful longer.

Constantly eating foods from the buckwheat derivative, you will forget about the acute symptoms of atherosclerosis, arthritis, rheumatism, anxiety, beriberi, bad mood, problems in the work of the reproductive system. Buckwheat flour can be included in the menu to people with allergies to gluten protein.

Recipes with buckwheat flour for weight loss

As you already know, nutritionists recommend the introduction in their diet of dishes made from buckwheat flour to those who dream of getting rid of excess weight or, conversely, slim girls who do not want to grow fat. Take note of several useful dietary recipes for such foods and drinks.

Kefir-buckwheat beverage. Ingredients: kefir low fat content – 250 ml, buckwheat groats – 1 tbsp.

How to cook:

In the evening, pour the buckwheat into the coffee grinder and chop the croup to the state of flour.
Pour the buckwheat powder into a glass, fill it with a sour-milk drink.
Mix the ingredients thoroughly and place the drink in the refrigerator for the whole night.
In the morning, take a buckwheat-kefir drink on an empty stomach.

Do this for two weeks, then stop for a month and repeat the course. For a day a portion of a drink based on buckwheat flour and a sour milk product with a condition to save you from 0.5 kg excess weight.

Buckwheat pancakes. Ingredients: wheat and buckwheat flour – 200 grams, milk – 2.5 cups, sugar and salt – 1 tsp, chicken raw eggs – 3 pieces, water, a little baking soda.

How to cook. Both kinds of flour sift and mix. Pour the milk into a saucepan, dilute it with a little water. Add the resulting mixture of sugar, salt and soda. In different bowls, whisk egg whites and yolks separately using a mixer. Then enter them alternately into the milk-water liquid. Then fill the flour and mix the dough. Bake pancakes on a heated frying pan, greased with vegetable oil.

Buckwheat jelly. Ingredients: boiled water – 1.3 l, buckwheat flour – 3 tbsp.

How to cook. In 300 ml of water, add the sifted flour – gradually and constantly stirring, so that there are no lumps. When the mixture has a uniform consistency, pour into it another 1 liter of warm boiled water. Place the saucepan with this mixture on a slow fire, cook for 5 minutes. Drink twice a day, half an hour before meals.

Lose weight with taste!

How did Zoloft help me?

How to get out of the Pit? Then again get into it … How did Zoloft help me? I’ll tell you everything as it is …


I thought a very long time before publishing this Review. Not every person is able to open the soul as much as I have decided today …

Get ready, because the story will be long.

It all began in 2010. I was cheerful and cheerful, I had a stable job, I signed up for a driving school, recently I went in for sports regularly, went to the gym and attended group classes: step aerobics, strength training, went on strip plastic and oriental dances.

I always considered myself a strong man with a steel character. In my childhood I never got sick, I did not lie in hospitals once, only once in 24 years (there was a stone from the kidney).

At school she was always the first excellent pupil, the class starter.

I entered the University for free (although I studied in absentia), from the third year I already had a stable job. In 2006 I was a certified lawyer.

Why am I writing this?

To make it clearer, how did I “come to this” before?

It all began unexpectedly.

It should be noted that at that time I had been living in a dormitory room (given from work) for 5 years with a neighbor who hated me before death. I tried not to pay attention to her (she was 10 years older than me and did not expect anyone to settle her), but she got up at 5 am and included a FEN! I sprayed with varnish so that I could not breathe, and when she pulled me to work (at 7), I ventilated the room every time and was forced to breathe all this.

I was at work by 8 o’clock, I lived nearby and could sleep until seven in the morning. But nevertheless, at 5 o’clock every day jumped up from her hair dryer (since then this buzz can not stand).

I had a difficult job, but I liked it. I worked in court. Can you imagine what kind of work there was? If not, I’ll tell you. On 15 court hearings a day, a lot of “unsubscribe”, a lot of inquiries, letters and subpoenas. Heavy morally and physically. A state where you do not know what to grab for, always follows you. For the weekend you take work on the house, in the evenings you sit until 8 pm. And so day after day, from year to year. But I never regretted that I worked in the courts. This is the only place where you can gain a full legal experience, which is always useful.

Yes, and the team we had friendly, and this time I remember with warmth.

In addition, I finally began to make money. Not so hot, but I had enough hairpins, I also helped my mother, which at that time did not work.

And it all started, I think, from the driving school.

In 2005 I had an accident. The driver was drunk, I was sitting in the front seat, someone in my arms. The driver was dispersed in earnest and we did not fit into the turn.

I still remember it with horror. The car rolled over onto the roof, no one could open the door. Then someone broke the front glass, and I was able to get out. In addition to the cones on my head, I did not have anything, but since then I have become panicky about traveling by car with great speed, as well as with little-known drivers.

I did not think that these memories would come up when I myself got behind the wheel!

And it happened.

The instructor in the driving school I was young and nervous. I could not do anything, I was nervous at the wheel, my hands were shaking and my heart was beating. Then panic attacks began to follow me. At first I did not quite understand what was happening to me. I thought my heart was in trouble. Then I noticed that my heart “goes” even when I just lay, walked, was at work. At night I could not sleep, I was tormented by terrible insomnia. At first I tried to drink soothing drugs: motherwort, Novo-Passit, Afobazol. But they did not help me.

Then I noticed that I had lost my appetite. Absolutely! I could eat yogurt or a banana during the day, nothing else got into me. Then there was a terrible nausea. I was sick every day and night. By that time, I practically did not eat anything, I lost weight so that all the clothes hung on me. At work, they thought that I had anorexia nervosa.

At home I tried to call an ambulance. But I was told that like there was nothing to invent, they gave glycine and that’s it. I tried to go to doctors, I was put all sorts of diagnoses: from arrhythmia to a hernia of the esophagus. Could not find the cause of nausea, wrote out Cerucal in tablets, but he did not help me.

Girls (and boys), darlings! If you have a breakdown in the heart, insomnia, lack of appetite and nausea – it’s NEUROS! For the most part, all these symptoms are from a disorder of the autonomic nervous system.

I’m writing this so that many will understand that they do not joke with nerves! I in life could not believe that this will happen to me! I passed a bunch of doctors, lay in several hospitals, but the final diagnosis was put to me after a long time. And this disease just does not go away, just fail to “rest”. The treatment is very long and difficult. A medication should be picked up by a highly qualified doctor, ideally a psychotherapist, or a neurologist. Also here will help a psychiatrist.

So, by the end of 2010, I was already barely dragging my feet. The driving school had to be left for the period of treatment (I got the right after 8 months). At the time I was weighing 50 kilograms, although I was always a chubby girl.

I was shaking in the literal sense of the word, I did not eat anything, could not go out, could not go to work. Then they put me in the hospital for the first time. Due to the fact that I had nausea as one of the symptoms, I was identified in the infectious department. Have diagnosed “a vegeto-vascular dystonia”. Treated with droppers, at night did Relanium. Have made EGF to exclude any gastric disease. Did or made cardiograms, pulse was for 100 always. That’s all the treatment.

Then I go to therapy. There, too, not particularly bother, the diagnosis was the same. They also put cervical osteochondrosis. As if from the neck I can shake and vomit! I lay there for 2 weeks and before the New Year I was discharged home.

After the New Year, I ended up in a neurological department.

That’s where they found out in me “their” patient!

My attending physician is available to me explained that, against the backdrop of chronic stress, the entire vegetative system has completely decayed me, and that the treatment will be long. How did she tell me that I have her “is the fifth of the court”, and that the work in the courts is very nervous.

They treated me with the same droppers, at night they gave me fenozepam so that I would sleep.

Upon termination of treatment to me have written out:

– Antidepressant Cipralex or Selectrou 5 mg in the morning for 6 months

– Neuromultivitis (vitamins of group B)

– Afobazol 3 months

– Therapeutic exercise constantly

– Observation at the neurologist at the place of residence.

I started treatment. I bought antidepressants (I drank Selectra for half a tablet, it is cheaper than Tipraplex), instead of Neuromultivitis I took Multitabs Antistress, saw Afobazol.

From work I had to quit, I just could not live in the same rhythm of life, moved to live with my mother, HOME! It was easier for me to regain consciousness there.

Gradually, slowly I began to “poke around”, a little to recover. I cleaned at home (little by little), read positive literature, my favorite “Cosmopolitan”, re-read the old issues, which I had accumulated enough.

Spring came, and with it I began to revive. Of course, I drank the medicine every day. Gradually it became easier. After months 5 after the beginning of treatment I finally came to my senses. I got a job (again in court, but there was less workload), life again became the same.

I got better both literally and figuratively. She gained weight again. Weighed 73 kilos! The organism, exhausted by hunger, was typed impetuously. Moreover, I, frightened by the recent lack of appetite, worked his snacks and sweets.

Life was getting better.

In the spring of 2012, I became pregnant. And although the child was not part of my plans, I was very happy about it. At that time I was almost 28 years old, there were no prospects for marriage, but I always knew that I would have a child, and that it would be a girl.

At the fourth week of pregnancy, MEAN started a terrible toxicosis. I vomited 40 times a day, at night I did not sleep because of nausea. Beginning endless rows of hospitals.

For the first month, I threw off 15 kilograms, and then the weight continued to decline.

I did not even have water in me. But even here another surprise awaited me – NEUROSE returned to me! I was ready to put up with all the inconveniences of toxicosis, but not neurosis!

Again everything came back: I was shaking, my pulse was 200, I was afraid and panic, you can not describe everything. But I was carrying a baby! No medicine is allowed!

I will not describe everything: I will only say that it was 9 months of hell, I will not wish anyone what I transferred. I drank some medicine (if I’m interested, I’ll write), otherwise I would not just endure the child, unable to withstand this depression.

But my birth was relatively normal. I gave birth to a daughter! My little princess!

Now I have the meaning of life.

After childbirth, I breastfed the baby for a year. Estesstvenno, no drug. Cope on my own. Of course, the constant lack of sleep and experiences for the child did not contribute to a speedy recovery, but I managed. Gradually, she came to herself.

When I finished feeding, I went to a neurologist. She wrote me Teraldzhen. It was a rescue: I began to sleep better, and I felt much calmer.

When the baby was 1.5 years old, I went to work. It should be noted that I changed jobs. But since I was always a perfectionist, I tried to get my job done “excellent” for that and paid for another NEUROISM.

And by that time I started driving, so I was very nervous. My daughter had to be sent to the kindergarten, she began to get sick all the time. I was torn between work and an eternally sick child. Plus winter has come, and on a winter road I am even more nervous about steel.

ALL RETURNED: insomnia, tachycardia, inhuman fear and panic. I was afraid to go out into the street, to work, I completely lost my appetite!

I knew that a “simple” doctor in my case would not help. I immediately went to a psychiatrist.

What surprised me, the doctor (man) did not make round eyes, but after listening. appointed me Zoloft.