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Bacterial infections

Bacterial infections include a huge group of diseases caused by microorganisms – bacteria. These are small unicellular microorganisms that have a strong cell wall to protect against the effects of aggressive environmental factors. Bacteria isolated in a separate realm – prokaryotes, since they do not have a nucleus, their genetic material is located in the cytoplasm of cells. These microorganisms are the most numerous and ancient of all living things, they live almost everywhere (water, air, soil, other organisms).

A few historical facts

For the first time see the microcosm, full of living things, in the XVII century. succeeded Dutch manufacturer Anthony van Leeuwenhoek, who was carried away by grinding glass first in the world built a microscope. Considering the water from the puddle, he saw that it was full of microorganisms, and gave them the name “microscopy.” The connection of microorganisms with diseases transmitted from one person to another was discovered by the French scientist Louis Pasteur in the 19th century. Before that, there was the idea that a patient with an infectious disease has a certain contagious beginning – “miasma”. Further, with the improvement of microscopic technology in the late nineteenth century, early XX century. Scientists managed to discover the causative agents of many infectious diseases (tuberculosis, typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, plague). And although the pathogens were known, but mankind could effectively fight the bacteria, only after the discovery of antibiotic penicillin by the English bacteriologist Alexander Fleming.

Classification of bacteria

Given that the bacteria are a very large group of microorganisms, they are divided into several groups according to certain criteria.

By way of a food:

saprophytes – free-living bacteria that feed on non-living organic matter, not pathogenic (the only exception are Legionella – the microbes that live in the fluid of air conditioners, when ingested, cause pneumonia);

parasites – eat at the expense of others, this group includes all pathogenic bacteria, as well as the necessary microorganisms that live in “commonwealth” with man (normal intestinal microflora consists of beneficial bacteria that in the process of life synthesize the B vitamins needed by the human body) .

According to the shape of the cell:

cocci – globular bacteria. These include: meningococcus (meningitis), staphylococcus (the majority of pustular diseases), pneumococcus (pneumonia), streptococcus (tonsillitis, erysipelas, streptoderma).

rod-shaped bacteria – cell shape in the form of a straight or curved rod. The causative agents of the diseases are: E. coli (acute intestinal infections, inflammatory diseases of the internal organs), shigella (dysentery), mycobacterium tuberculosis, diphtheria bacillus (diphtheria), tetanus.

crimson bacteria – in shape resemble a corkscrew spiral: pale treponema – the causative agent of syphilis, leptospira – the disease of leptospirosis (it is interesting that the shape of the corkscrew helps spirochetes literally “get in” through the human skin and thus penetrate the body).

bacteria that change form – a special group of bacteria without a cell wall – are intracellular parasites: mycoplasmas (chronic diseases of the genitourinary organs that are difficult to treat).

flagellate forms – bacteria on the cell have flagella, actively move in the external environment, which allows them to increase the possibility of infection (cholera vibrio – causative agent of cholera).

Pathogenesis of bacterial infections

The most important in the development of diseases caused by a bacterial infection is the release of toxins (poisons) by bacteria that have an inflammatory effect, cause intoxication of the organism and damage internal organs:

endotoxins – is released after the death of the bacterium and the destruction of its cells (intestinal infections). The most dangerous is meningococcal endotoxin in meningococcal infections. In the event of the death of a significant number of bacteria, the released endotoxin can lead to the development of an infectious-toxic shock and lead to death.
 exotoxins – poisons released by living bacteria in the process of their vital activity (diphtheria).

Principles of diagnosis of bacterial infections

The main method for diagnosing bacterial infections is bacteriological research. In this case, the patient takes the material containing the bacteria, and is sown on special nutrient media. After the colonies grow on nutrient media (about 48 hours), the bacteria are identified. The huge advantage of this method is the ability to conduct a sensitivity study of the isolated bacterium to antibiotics, for the purpose of rational treatment. Also used are:

microscopic examination of the material – allows you to put an indicative diagnosis when detecting bacteria with a microscope.
     serological examination – the presence of antibodies in the blood to certain bacteria is determined, an increase in the antibody titer indicates the presence of bacteria in the body.

Principles of treatment of bacterial infections

Treatment of bacterial infections, like any other disease, is complex and includes:

etiotropic therapy – treatment aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease – bacteria. For this, an arsenal of antibiotics is used. At the moment there are several groups of antibiotics, but the most important is their separation into bactericidal antibiotics (kill bacteria) and bacteriostatic (suppress the growth and reproduction of bacterial cells). This is very important to know, especially in the case of meningococcal infection, the appointment of bactericidal antibiotics will lead to mass death of meningococci and the release of endotoxins into the blood.

pathogenetic therapy – is aimed at removing from the body of bacterial toxins that accumulate in the course of an infectious disease (detoxification). Also, treatment aimed at restoring damaged organs is carried out.

symptomatic therapy – is needed to alleviate the condition of a person with bacterial infection and reduce the severity of symptoms.

At the present time, thanks to antibiotics, it is possible to cure most bacterial infections, but it should be remembered that improper intake of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance (insensitivity) in bacteria and even dependence on antibiotics.

Vitamins are another type of poison

Vitamins – this is another kind of poison, imperceptibly killing humanity

The pharmacological mafia has come up with many ways of mass killing people, and vitamins are just one of the weapons of murder. Those who advertise and sell these weapons are accomplices of murderers and are subject to punishment …

We are poisoned with vitamins. Exposure of the popular drug Moriamin

Today we will talk about supposedly useful: about vitamins. Synthetic vitamins, which are sold in pharmacies, have to be used one way or another. Given the high profitability of this business and lawlessness in Russia, manufacturers around the world are giving us more and more know-how, constantly promoting the cult of medical consumerism, fixing zombies, that without vitamins from the pharmacy, we just die. Most of the vitamins, when examined in detail, are not only useless, but also dangerous food additives or banned in normal countries.

Synthetic vitamins are dangerous

Researches of foreign scientists prove: tablets with multivitamins will not protect people from diseases and, quite possibly, they increase the risk of development of some forms of cancer. Purchased official opinion of specialists of the Research Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Science: vitamins Russians do not have enough catastrophically – you need not eat 2-3 times a year, and monthly and packs. Find a specialist in Russia who would directly oppose the “regime” of vitaminization is impossible. Of course, the sick mankind is profitable forever for the pharmaceutical business. Russia does not conduct research, but abroad the use of multivitamins is seriously questioned.

Beta-carotene with vitamin A increases mortality by 30%, and with vitamin E – by 10%

This was discovered by scientists who studied the effect of multivitamins on the prevention of malignant tumors in the digestive system: “We could not find evidence that supplements with antioxidants can prevent the development of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract; on the contrary, they, probably, increase death rate “, – they write on pages of” Lancet “. The combinations of beta-carotene with vitamin A and E were worse than others (it was precisely these “vitamin culprits” that accumulated the main negative in recent years). Beta-carotene in the company with vitamin A increased mortality by almost 30%, and with vitamin E – by 10%. Although these indicators are statistically reliable, scientists do not speak about them with delicacy, but use the term “possible”. And once again they emphasize the need for further research to put all the points over i.

This time the scientists had the courage to calculate the possible losses associated with excessive enthusiasm for polyvitamins. “If the finding of scientists is correct,” David Formman of Lida University and Douglas Altman of the Cancer Research UK write in a commentary to the article in the Lancet, then of every 1 million people who consume such drugs, 9,000 people will die prematurely … “The prospect that some multivitamins not only have side effects, but can kill, they call” a frightening assumption.”

Zero result in cardiovascular disease and cancer prevention

Two years ago, in the Lancet, the results of a very large study of the Heart Protection Study were published. It involved more than 20 thousand people with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. They studied the protective effects of all the same antioxidants – beta-carotene and vitamins C and E. The result is zero!

During the five-year observation, the preparations did not interfere with the development of heart attacks, strokes and various cancers. At the same time, the content of the vitamins in the blood increased. But they somehow did not work. Despite these data, drugs and synthetic dietary supplements with antioxidants to protect the heart and blood vessels continue to be produced, registered and advertised. This happens not only in Russia, but throughout the world.

A very loud scandal occurred even earlier, in 1998. Then the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the organization, issued an official warning that synthetic drugs with beta-carotene and related substances should not be used to prevent cancer. Leading world scientists came to this conclusion, having analyzed the results of numerous studies on the prevention of diseases with beta-carotene and vitamin A.

“In none of these studies have drugs had a significant preventive effect,” then warned Dr. Harri Wainio, who heads one of the IARC offices. – Moreover, among smokers who received drugs, a higher risk of developing lung cancer and an increase in mortality from cardiovascular diseases were identified. Our group concluded that as long as there is no additional information on how synthetic beta-carotene and other carotenoids affect the processes leading to cancer, none of these substances should be sold to the public as drugs that prevent the development of tumors. Meanwhile, the prevention of cancer with fresh fruits and vegetables remains more effective than the intake of one or more such substances in the form of synthetic biologically active additives.

Years have passed, new data have appeared on the negative effects of beta-carotene and some other artificially synthesized antioxidants, but things are still there. Commercial use of such drugs continues. Serious studies that prove their effectiveness and safety, manufacturers do not conduct. Unlike drugs, “vitamin” is considered safe and useful a priori.

Moriamin Fort is an expensive unsafe dummy

Information from the manufacturer: The advertising company of this drug says that it is practically a panacea based on Japan technologies, an absolutely safe complex of vitamin and amino acids that can be taken even by pregnant women. We will not go into details, they are on the site. Reality: a complex of synthetic vitamins in low concentration, which does not even reach the daily norm, flavored with chemicals and dyes, poses a health hazard.

Myths about Moriamin

Myth: It saturates the body with all the necessary components, even athletes drink, which need a dose of vitamins more than usual.

True: the concentration of the substance is so small that even at the maximum dose specified by the manufacturer, it does not cover the daily need of an adult, especially for amino acids, apparently they are just the most expensive components of Miriamin, that’s saving. For example, the amino acid L-valine is required on the day 1300-3800 mg, and in Moriamin if you drink the maximum dose (3 capsules), you will get only 20.1 mg. Also with isoleucine: 2500 mg are necessary, and in 3 capsules of Moriamin it is only 17.7 mg.

Myth: the site lists only the composition of 8 basic amino acids and 11 vitamins.

In addition to useful components, we see some “auxiliary components” in the instructions, namely E104, E122, E155, E171, E216, E218, macrogol 6000 (laxative), hypromellose, magnesium silicate, acetic acid, starch, lactose monohydrate and others. .

I note that on no site there is a complete instruction, where the composition would be written – they left only useful, but we have a photo of the actual instruction, though the Ukrainian version, I think it will be clear anyway. It is not known what other hideous things they hid in the instructions … As we see, there is not much good in such a composition that the child would not in any case give. Muck it from the store products can get, but another thing vitamins! Why should they maim us ?! Look at the photos of the vitamins – here without analysis you can see that the dye is crammed decently (photo from the site of moriamin) …

Myth: The manufacturer – on the packaging it is written that the technology is Japanese, the distributor is England, but produced wherever you think ?! Of course, in China.

True: Japan a priori can not be a producer – look at the list above. In Japan, at least 2 dyes are prohibited, which are part of the composition. And what they have written on the site: there is an English, Russian and Ukrainian version. Usually, if the drug is of international use, there are more languages, and the Ukrainian one is generally an endangered species, not even on all Ukrainian sites, but here it is). Immediately clear target audience.

In support of speculation, we open the “Where to buy” page, specially in English. And suddenly there will be a lot of English-speaking countries indicated. What we see:


Probably, the Uzbeks need an English version of the site. I think everything here is clear without comments.

Prohibited in the civilized world, Moriamin is pushed into third world countries, while selling it at a price of about 30 euros for 100 pieces (per month). An excellent tool of extermination – sheep themselves will eat poison, and they will pay for it. Of course, the advertising company is powerful: here the design of advertising is pleasant, the packaging is serious, they are twisted on TV, and PR is not negligible on the Internet – there are only praises everywhere, but there is no sober reasoning.

In Europe and the United States, Moriamin is not for sale.

It can not be said that all vitamin complexes are dangerous. But with the example of Moriamin, we see how much information that is presented to us is far from reality. Synthetic vitamins will never benefit – better than natural vitamins from healthy food simply does not happen and it is unlikely to be. And all medicines are just literate PR and the desire of the world elite to squeeze a little more of the stupid sheep called “mankind” and in particular “Rashka”.

Food is not very simple!

In foods of healthy nutrition, toxins are not less than in the rest of the food …

The production of food products in the developed countries has long turned into a dirty business. Instead of normal food, they sell sets of chemicals packed in beautiful wrappers. The same is true for “healthy” meals …

10 toxic substances hidden in vitamins, food additives and healthy foods

I’m just amazed at how foolish people are about what they use. If something is sold, like herbs, vitamins, especially active foods or food additives, they somehow believe that such a group of products is automatically safe. Yes, the production of natural products has a truly remarkable safety record, especially when compared with the number of deaths from pharmaceuticals, but it turns out that hidden toxins are used everywhere in this industry.

I’m talking about this, because For over 10 years I have been engaged in investigative journalism in the health industry. Natural News, perhaps the most widely read news site on natural health in the world, it is read by about a million people a month. I visited countless trade shows, spent hundreds of interviews and spent tens of thousands of dollars on laboratory research, and everything to determine what is in these products? I fully advocate for products containing organic substances and certified organic food production, behind which is the certificate of quality of organic food production and packaging material USDA.

On the one hand, looking around, you can see honest producers of natural products, a company with a high level of integration, like Nature’s Path and Dr. Bronner’s. But in this market there is also an alarming number of fraudsters, scammers and charlatans, whose production interests, in the first place, for profit in connection with the boom for food additives. Honestly, some foods are just dangerous to your health. And my role as a journalist, teach you to distinguish good quality products from toxic products. After all, in the long run, I want you to be healthy, energetic, intelligent and active, enjoy life and improve the quality of your life.

What’s written next can be shocking, and after reading this, you’ll probably throw away most of the food from your refrigerator and pantry. Few are ready to reveal the truth about which we are talking here. So…

1) Maltodextrin (from GM maize). Let’s start with a large one: choosing a natural product, you saw “maltodextrin” in the list of ingredients, so there is every chance that maltodextrin in this product is derived from GM maize, Monsanto. Virtually all maltodextrin, used in the natural products industry, is genetically modified. In addition, certified organic products USDA, they do not use genetically modified maltodextrin. And it turns out that in products without GMOs and corn substitutes, tapioca maltodextrin is obtained just from GM corn, and as you can see, tapioca / maltodextrin starch is found in many certified organic “non-containing” GM products. So, avoid corn maltodextrin, unless it is in a certified organic USDA product.

2) Vitamin C / ascorbic acid (from GM corn). Here is another sensation that will open many eyes: almost all the “vitamin C”, sold throughout America, is derived from GM corn. And this means that most of the supplements that are sold on Whole Foods, vitamins on, tablets in the pharmacy, and in particular products in the grocery store (practically) are all made from genetically modified vitamin C, or as it is also called “ascorbic acid “, So that almost 100% of ascorbic acid used in the industry of natural products, obtained from GMOs.

To find vitamin C without GMO, you need to go far beyond the United States. Within America, there is no chain of supply of certified organic products that do not contain GMOs in ascorbic acid (at least as far as I know). It is useless to look for batches that do not contain GMOs in ascorbic acid in US industries, because all plants use a substance derived from GM corn. Therefore, there is no doubt that all cheap “vitamin C”, sold at retail, is made from genetically modified corn.

3) Extraction with hexane of protein, soy and rice. Almost 100% of the “natural” soy and rice proteins sold in the US are produced in China, where the hexane extraction method is used. Indeed, the brown rice protein, like soy protein, is used in almost all so-called “protein bars”. Here is a list of protein bars that currently use soy protein.

Hexane is an explosive chemical that is extremely hazardous to the environment. However, its signs can be found in protein products. Naturally, to obtain certified organic proteins, extraction with hexane is not allowed, so it is necessary to purchase certified organic proteins, and not simply, a “natural product” (which literally means nothing). Extraction by hexane, by the way, is also used in the production of textured vegetable protein (TVP). And you can learn more about TVP here.

4) The content of high levels of aluminum in products for detoxification. For example, the manufacturer of the popular liquid product for detoxification, Adya Clarity, intentionally and deliberately deceived consumers by making the wrong label of the product, not to mention the 1200 g / t aluminum contained in it. The FDA, the Food and Drug Administration, seized some products and conducted its own laboratory tests that confirmed the high level of aluminum content, and also revealed numerous labeling violations.

Adya Clarity is just one of many so-called products for detoxification, containing an alarming level of aluminum and other metals. The use of such a product for the purpose of “detoxifying” the body can cause harm to your health. That once again proves: it is not necessary to always trust the natural products sold through the Internet where the manufacturer can ignore the laws of marking and make false advertising theses in order to sell the product. Buyers should beware when it comes to metals in products for detoxification, supposedly promising, magical results.

5) Lead and arsenic in Chinese medicinal herbs. China is the most polluted country on the planet (today), however, fruits, vegetables and herbs grown in China are exported to Europe and North America for their use in natural products. A high content of lead and arsenic is now and then found in food, additives and plant products from China. I am not even surprised by the figure of 1 g / t, by the way, of heavy metals, like lead and mercury. Even positive tests for aluminum content at a higher level, up to 150 g / t, in organically grown foods, are no longer such a big problem. But when the content of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium reaches a high level of saturation (or are in inorganic form), such products for consumers are a potential source of poisoning with heavy metals. Surprisingly, many small and medium-sized companies importing and retailing products from China do not conduct any tests for metals. I know this because I talked with people who do this.

6) Minerals, inorganic origin in cheap vitamins. Do you use metal shavings and call it the body’s nutrients? Most people do not even know that most of the cheap vitamins that are sold today are made of metal shavings. Calcium in cheap vitamins – often just crushed shells, and magnesium is often sold as a cheap magnesium oxide, which is completely useless for body cells. So, when buying mineral supplements, you simply spend money on the wind, unless these minerals are in the right form, for example magnesium orotate or malate.

Mineral additives often show signs of substances such as barium and lead, but they are usually at the lower level (g / t), and are not a real problem. But the best source of all minerals, oddly enough, will be fresh vegetables and fruits. And if you want to satiate the body with minerals, then eat as many fresh fruits and vegetables as possible and drink their juice. Your body wants “organic” minerals from food of vegetable origin, and not inorganic minerals of rocks.

7) Carrageenan? Cornucopia Institute, a group of high-nutrition activists, which we have supported for a long time, recently published a warning about carrageenans in food. Cornucopia claims that carrageenan causes “inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, including the risk of developing colon cancer, in studies on laboratory animals.” Here is what is reported in the report:

Because carrageenan contributes to gastrointestinal inflammation, Cornucopia encourages people who are concerned about the symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract (irritable bowel syndrome, mucosal colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic diarrhea, etc.), completely remove carrageenan from the diet, not whether it is one of the factors that cause these symptoms.

Personally, I have never had any problems with this, given that carrageenan is derived from algae. Almond milk Blue Diamond contains a large amount of carrageenan, and I drank it when there was no time to prepare almond milk myself, but no problems arose. So, based on my personal experience, I do not consider carrageenan a dangerous ingredient, but I understand that on some it can have quite a different effect and cause trouble for people whose digestive system is more sensitive to me. It should be noted that I definitely do not consider carrageenan, as dangerous as aspartame, GMO or glutamate sodium.

8) Acrylamides. Acrylamides are chemical substances that cause cancer, they are formed when high-temperature processing of foods containing carbohydrates. In fried chips, for example, there is acrylamide. And it is not necessary to indicate it on the label, because technically it is not an “ingredient”. These are chemicals produced during cooking or frying. Note that acrylamide increases the risk of kidney cancer by 59%.

The Office of the FDA published an extensive guide to the level of acrylamide in food, in which french fries – the highest rate. But it is also present in prune juice and even in breakfast cereals. In a package with organic chips there can be as much acrylamide as in a bag with ordinary chips. That’s why fried chips should be eaten with care, but it is better not to eat them at all. Sometimes I eat chips, but in limited quantities and must use chlorella to counteract acrylamides with them.

It is interesting that vitamin C blocks acrylamides, and they can not harm the body. But if there is a GMO in vitamin C, then you might want to reconsider this strategy. Citrus juices, rose hips or even powdered dried berries kamu-kama will be a much better option for natural vitamin C. So, consuming fried foods of any kind, make sure that together with it you consume vitamin C, astaxanthin and chlorella before and after taking.

9) Hidden glutamate sodium / yeast extract. Glutamate sodium in a latent form is a big problem for the whole industry of natural products. Take any vegetarian hamburger, but what will you find there? Yeast extract, a latent form of MSG (sodium glutamate). The yeast extract is incredibly common in the food industry, because on the label it looks better than MSG. Most people have long avoided products with MSG, but yeast extract is missed. Therefore, manufacturers do not miss this opportunity and put it almost everywhere: in canned soups, sauces, chips, frozen food for cooking in the microwave, but especially a lot of them in vegetarian products. Most “vegetarian products” are stuffed with so many chemicals and additives that I’ll never dare touch them.

Remember: if the label has the word “vegetarian”, it does not mean that we are talking about healthy food. MSG in latent form is labeled as “autolysed yeast extract” or “Torul yeast”, or even “hydrolyzed vegetable protein”.

10) Fluoride compounds in green tea. Green tea is known for its high content of fluoride compounds. It is believed that green tea is phenomenally good for health, it reduces the level of “bad” cholesterol and can even prevent the risk of cancer or neurological disorders. Probably, this is one of the healthiest drinks that you have ever drunk. Only here tea leaves, from which make green tea, absorb a huge amount of fluoride from the soil. And if there is fluoride in the soil, then in green tea it will be surprisingly high concentration, sometimes up to 25 g / t.

Although fluoride compounds in green tea are not dangerous for their health, governments around the world do not stop contaminating water sources with synthetic, chemical fluorine, thereby creating a high risk of fluorosis. And what will happen, in addition to green tea with its fluoride compounds, the contribution to fluoride supplies makes connections in tap water, and this is a catastrophe: fragility of bones, discoloration of the teeth and even cancer.

And one more “small secret” of the industry of natural products. Most importers, packers, suppliers and sellers of natural products trust laboratory research from manufacturers and exporters! Thus, a typical American company that sells, for example, a pomegranate powder on the Internet, could never conduct its own tests for lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and aluminum. They simply accept the results of laboratory tests provided by the manufacturer, and treat them as an absolute fact. Which is extremely stupid. Manufacturers and exporters knowingly falsify laboratory tests in order to blast the importers, recipe developers and retailers. Laboratory tests can easily be faked or simply bought in your home country. And then these products are easily sold and exported. The FDA does not regularly check the imported raw materials for heavy metals.

The good news: I know that all more or less expensive stores like Natural News, Mercola, Gary Null, etc., regularly check their raw materials for the content of foreign substances. I’m sure Gaia herbs regularly test all their batches, and also that Vitacost, before switching to other hands a few years ago, conducted its own laboratory tests, as they said, a test on the spot. But I also know small retailers who do not test anything at all, and are much more interested in sales than in what actually is in these jars. I also know that under “organic” products, products that do not have a corresponding certificate are blown out! Absolutely irresponsible practice, which must be stopped. (Be sure to check the product for the USDA quality certificate, if they do not have such a logo, then it’s not a fact that they are organic).

Be carefull. Ask the results of laboratory tests, especially on products from China.

Be careful, salt!

Tireless enemies, poisoning almost all of our food, got to salt. Yes, ordinary salt is now also turned into a serious poison. Therefore, we need to be doubly more careful when choosing products in stores …

Salt is a white death. With this phrase, we are frightened from childhood by everyone who is not lazy – both ignorant physicians and no less ignorant gurus from the “healthy” lifestyle, claiming the unconditional benefit of a salt-free diet.

But this diet can seriously damage your health. The fact is that, as soon as the salt ceases to enter the body in the required quantity, a malfunction occurs in the so-called. potassium-sodium pump. This is a special mechanism of cellular metabolism, in which the cell absorbs potassium and gives sodium, and which protects the vessels from constriction and spasms. In other words, salty foods in optimal amounts help prevent thrombosis, that is, salt reduces the risk of developing a heart attack. However, this applies to normal salt. I foresee the question: “Ah, what is abnormal?” Alas, there is.

Recently, my friend from Moscow told me that in Russia, the salt began to add the antisementator E-535/536. Dishes cooked with such salt have a hideous bitterish taste. After reading on the Internet about this supplement, the hair stood on end. In the product of the widest application, which people used for centuries without any “improvements” and “decorations”, naturally poisons are added! See for yourself.

E-535 is sodium ferrocyanide. Antifreezing agent, clarifier. Yellow crystals or crystalline powder. Obtained from the waste mass after cleaning gases at gas plants by chemical synthesis. As the name implies, the substance contains cyanide compounds.

E536 is potassium ferrocyanide. A derivative of potassium cyanide or else potassium cyanide, a known instantaneous poison. Potassium ferrocyanide is registered as food additive E-536, which prevents caking and clumping of products. Toxic. In its production, additional cyanides are formed, including hydrocyanic acid (depending on the method of preparation of E-536).

The attack on people’s health does not stop for a minute. 10 years ago, we conducted our own investigations into “advanced technologies” designed to destroy the health of as many people as possible. See the section of the site “Advisor” “Chemistry and Life”. However, today this pernicious practice only grows. We are looking for ever new ways of adding poisons to all normal products and inventing new, artificial ones that, at least, do not bring any benefit, and in most cases harm.

We suggest that you familiarize yourself with several more facts of food counterfeiting. Taken from here.

How the food industry forges products

The food industry, in all likelihood, will never tire of surprising us with ingenuity, especially when it comes to creating counterfeit products. Here are a few facts confirming this.

1. Sour cream – a fake

One of the most popular sour-milk products. Today, stores offer us sour cream of different fat, but they keep quiet about the fact that it has long ceased to be a real sour cream. We buy a substance that looks like it both externally and to taste. What do we really eat? Animal fat, replace vegetable, milk protein – with soy, and soybeans – genetically modified. Add a flavor additive – and on the shelves. Sour cream is very useful, it is very quickly absorbed by the body, but it concerns sour cream prepared in a classical way, i.e. exclusively from cream and sourdough. And this sour cream is difficult to find today on the shelves.

How to check the naturalness of the product? It’s very simple: you need to dissolve a teaspoon of sour cream in a glass of boiling water. The fake will fall out, and the present will completely dissolve.

2. Caviar – a fake

In Russia, caviar was introduced to the table more than 300 years ago. Peter the First held 50 special anglers who delivered caviar to the royal court.

Today this delicacy, rich in iodine, is not available to everyone due to the high price. Therefore, red and black caviar learned to forge. They make it from seaweed, and the taste of this caviar gives off gelatin. But even if the roe has the smell of fish, and the eggs are of the correct shape and have the required color, all this does not prove their naturalness. The natural caviar bursts when compressed and has a bitter taste, and the fake is simply chewed. In natural eggs, eggs should be whole, there should not be a lot of liquid. If there is less salt in the caviar, it may not survive until the end of the implementation period.

The shelf life of the caviar after the catch is three days, which is why the producers add preservatives for the extension of the term. The best caviar is packaged in cans from July to September, at this time spawning salmonids, and more likely that the manufacturer used a minimum of preservatives.

Checking the naturalness of caviar. If you throw a real egg in a tank with boiling water, the protein starts to fold, leaving a white loop in the water, and the egg itself remains unharmed. Artificial caviar in boiling water, after a while will lose shape and begin to dissolve.

3. Canned food

Problems that the buyer may face.

– the ratio of fish and sauce. If the manufacturer uses the sauce more than is necessary, it saves considerably;

– to the fish itself is often added volume magnifiers;

– Presence of preservatives (eg sorbic acid);

– if the cans are blocked incorrectly, tin can get inside and oxidize.

Preservatives. The use of preservatives began in ancient times. People have always wanted to extend the shelf life of products. Salt, honey, wine. Later replaced with wine vinegar and ethyl alcohol. Essential oils were also used to preserve food from spices. Everything would be fine if the natural preservatives were not replaced with synthetic preservatives. They stop the formation in the product, as well as harmful, and beneficial bacteria. Thanks to them, the shelf life of the product, color, smell increases. On the other hand, they can provoke stomach upsets, changes in blood pressure, even cancer.

4. Crab sticks

Judging by the name – a delicacy. But all consumers have long known that there are no crabs in crab sticks. But not many people know that basically there are no fish there. Judging by the inscriptions on the package, the composition of crab sticks includes starch, dyes, preservatives and surimi (fish minced meat). As it turns out, the fish does not have more than 10% of fish. After the analyzes, the experts could not find out exactly what the remaining 90% were for the substances. After the publication of the results of such a study in the press, sales of crab sticks fell several times. The saddest thing is that producers do not tell the whole truth about the composition of “not crab sticks”. The conclusion is simple: crab sticks are a product with unknown components, and it is not just not worth it, but it is absolutely not worth it.

5. Smoked fish

It is mainly done with the help of liquid smoke – the strongest carcinogen, banned in many countries of the world. The manufacturer claims that the main component of such a liquid is the extract from ordinary smoke. And the recipe of production is kept secret. Quickly soak fish now is not a problem, neither smokehouse nor cherry sawdust is needed.

Recipe. All is very simple, for half a liter of water, two tablespoons of salt and 50 grams. liquid smoke. We dip the fish, and leave it in the refrigerator for two days. Everything – smoked fish is ready.

And what about the heat treatment that should kill botulism, cholera, salmonella, staphylococcus and all sorts of worms? We are offered to buy this whole bunch of probabilities with the fish. It would be fair to call it not a smoked fish, but a “Russian-roulade” fish. The conclusion is one, you want to live, just do not eat “ruskouletochnuyu” fish.

To distinguish it from real smoked is also not difficult. In this smoked fish, on the cut meat has a yellowish tint, and in the area of the stomach, fat of the same color is collected. Painted fish in the section has the color of a simple herring and there is practically no fat release. Therefore, when buying a smoked fish, ask the seller to cut it. And pay attention to the date of smoking, as if improperly stored, the likelihood of the appearance of harmful bacteria is greatly increased.

6. Shrimp

When buying shrimp, we actually buy water. They are frozen immediately after the catch: the shrimps glaze with ice so that they do not break. The amount of ice in shrimps is not specified by the producers, because there are simply no norms for its quantity. These manufacturers increase the weight percent by 10-40. The packaging also shows the caliber of shrimp, the essence of it – the amount of shrimp per kilogram. But this is true only for unpurified shrimp. These norms are violated by almost all manufacturers. Marine coastal plankton can accumulate in itself heavy metals.

For a long time, we learned how to breed shrimp in the coastal zone. Shrimp, grown on a piece, contain antibiotics that are added to the water so that the crustaceans do not ache. Excess antibiotics in the body causes allergic reactions, dysbacteriosis, kills the microflora in the body. Most often, they use levomycetin, which is very slowly excreted from the human body. Unfortunately, as long as we do not have laws that regulate the presence of growth stimulants or antibiotics in shrimp.

On the eye, the presence of antibiotics in shrimps can not be detected. Therefore, when buying, look for “Atlantic” shrimp, that is, caught in the sea, there is much less antibiotic in them.

Conclusion: shrimps have a very high probability of antibiotics, so it is advisable to limit the use of shrimp up to several times a month. Especially if the shrimp producer is doubtful.

7. Most of honey, soy sauce and spices in shops – fake

Most honey market participants around the world are buying honey of doubtful quality in China. In Chinese honey, pollen is usually filtered out – this is done to disguise its origin. Consequently, the resulting substance with honey can not be properly named.

Soy sauce is also mostly fake, although it would seem that the soybean itself is raw materials. The whole point here is that the production process of this soy sauce is too long and time consuming. Therefore, many enterprising manufacturers decided to reorient themselves to the “early” imitation, which is being prepared in three days, and stored incomparably longer.

But worst of all, perhaps, is the situation with saffron. This is an expensive treat, not for nothing that it is called the “king of spices”. For a kilo of this saffron will have to shell out about twenty thousand dollars. This is impressive, considering that most manufacturers claiming to sell spices exclusively “top quality”, in fact, each pack of saffron percent ten or so. The rest is worthless crushed plants.

8. Using a special glue from meat scraps, you can make one big and mouth-watering steak

The substance that glues pieces of meat is called “transglutaminase” or simply “meat glue”. This enzyme allows fashionable chefs to give already prepared meat dish or crab chops some fancy shape. Much less harmless is another use of transglutaminase. In large meat production, there are always a lot of pieces and scraps that are suitable, perhaps, for animal feed. And thanks to transglutaminase, thrifty entrepreneurs can glue any wastes of meat production into one and avoid financial losses. And the simple consumer to distinguish such a mosaic from an ordinary piece of meat is very difficult.

9. Salmon is painted in pink

The real color of salmon (trout, salmon), which lies on the shelves of our stores – is pale gray. Now it is mainly grown artificially – on farms where this unfortunate fish is deprived of natural food and lives in such cramped conditions that it is practically unable to move. To give the fish a beautiful pink color, the producers, as you might guess, stuff it with special coloring preparations. These salmon pills make even different shades – for the different tastes of the owners of fish farms. Today, 95% of Atlantic salmon are grown on farms, and almost all of them are dyed.

10. The Italian Mafia is engaged in fake olive oil

Oddly, this sounds, but the falsification of olive oil is one of the most profitable types of “activity” of the Italian mafia. The income from olive oil is comparable to that of drug trafficking. For ordinary consumers, this means that most of the olive oil on the market is either heavily diluted with cheaper raw materials, or is a complete imitation.

The oil that is now sold under the guise of high-quality olive oil, at least 80% – a mixture of cheap vegetable oils from Tunisia, Morocco, Greece and Spain. No particular benefit from such a product, of course, no. At least not more than from ordinary sunflower oil. Surprisingly, people are so used to the taste of a fake that now a real pure product is often mistaken for a fake. ”

What to do?

First, you need to carefully read the composition of the products you buy. If the product contains a long list of E-Shek, do not buy it (see the list of “Food Ingredients” on the “Advisor” website, which lists the chemical ingredients used in the food industry.) Study it and take it with you when you go to the grocery store) .

Secondly, try to independently produce products of everyday demand. For example, you yourself bake bread in a bread maker, cook yogurt, sour cream and yogurt in yogurt.

Thirdly, to look for reliable producers or, if possible, to organize the control or production of harmless foodstuffs themselves. Since the situation today is such that the drowning people are really in the hands of the drowning themselves, and there is no one to shift responsibility for their own health and safety.

Baldness. Causes. Diagnostics. Treatment.

Baldness. Causes. Diagnostics. Treatment.

Since the formation of hair follicles, hair enters a cycle of active growth. The relative duration of the phases of the cycle varies depending on the genetic characteristics, age, sex, the state of hemostasis and the neuroendocrine properties of each individual. The cycle of hair growth consists of three stages: anagenic, catagenic and telogen. The phase of anagen is characterized by the initial stage of formation and maturation of the root and core of the hair. The catagenic phase represents the period of complete formation of the hair, and the last, the telogen phase indicates the wilting of the onion and root, followed by hair loss. In addition to genetic factors, age, sex, metabolic and neuro-endocrine activity, the character of the stage development and hair formation is strongly influenced by the seasonality of the year, the nature of nutrition, the mode of work and rest, and the emotional state.


Full or partial hair loss on the head or other parts of the body is called baldness, baldness (alopecia). Distinguish congenital full or partial alopecia, combined with other genetically determined ectodermal dysplasia, and symptomatic alopecia, as a result of bacterial infection or toxic effect on the papillae of hair of severe common diseases, pregnancy, advanced infections. Separately, the age-related as well as premature alopecia are isolated, the formation of which is genetically mediated and largely depends on the state of health and lifestyle. Diffuse hair thinning is often a consequence of seborrhea. The most common pathological process in adults and children is circular, or nest, alopecia areata – hair loss in the form of rounded foci of different sizes.


Causes of baldness.


The role of infection in the formation of alopecia areata was assumed back in the 30s, when epidemic cases of the process in children’s groups were noted. Recently, there are reports of the presence of staphylococci and streptococci in the lesions of the affected skin, identical in phage-type.


Other causes of baldness?

  1. fast (literally within 3-7 days) loss of a large amount of hair can be caused by severe poisoning and intoxications (for example, heavy metal salts). In this case, the main therapeutic measure will be the removal of toxins from the body (reception of enterosorbents, intravenous infusions of detoxicants), restoration of immunity, protection of the liver. And hair will be restored after recovery within several months.
  2. prolonged loss of a large number of hair on the entire surface of the scalp – this form occurs with prolonged use of medications (antibiotics, analgesics, immunomodulators and many others). Restorative therapy of the whole organism also helps here; gentle care of hair; rubbing of funds that increase blood flow to the scalp (for example, pepper tincture); zinc preparations for oral administration. Period of hair restoration takes more than 6 months.
  3. focal alopecia (nesting, circular) – often occurs due to a violation of blood supply and innervation of the hair follicles for problems in the cervical spine (this problem requires consultation of a neurologist and, perhaps, a course of physiotherapy and massage).
  4. there is also a “male” form of alopecia (although it is often found in women). This form is directly related to the male sex hormone dihydrotestosterone (the hair follicles are sensitive to it) and is hereditary. In women, this form can occur with hormonal disorders in the body (adrenal and ovarian diseases, menopause). Fortunately, there are drugs that block the action of the hormone on the hair follicle (they are injected mesotherapy with microinjections into the scalp, rubbed into solutions, used as shampoos). This greatly helps in solving the problem.
  5. unfortunately, there are forms of baldness, which are difficult to treat (many of them are of cicatricial origin). Scarring changes in the scalp could occur after trauma, inflammation, radioactive exposure, as a result of skin diseases (fungal, pustular), occasionally it is a congenital form. Here absorbable drugs (lidase), stimulators of blood flow, sometimes hormones are applicable.

In the pathogenesis of alopecia areata there are also genetic, local neuro-trophic features, endocrine and autoimmune disorders. Evidence of autoimmune genesis is the data on the excessive number of pathological circulating immune complexes in the blood serum, the accumulation of lymphoid cells around the hair bulbs during the active phase of the disease, the deposition of immune complexes in the hair follicles.

Patients with focal alopecia showed marked changes in the system of hemostasis and rheological properties of the blood.

Clinical picture. Hair loss occurs suddenly, usually on the head, less often in the area of the cheeks, chin, skin of the eyelids (loss of eyelashes). Single or multiple foci of alopecia usually have the correct round shape, clear boundaries, a tendency to peripheral growth and the formation of large areas, sometimes exciting the entire head (total alopecia). The skin of the affected foci is sometimes slightly hyperemic at first, and then sluggish, flattened, atrophic, shiny, resembling an elephant ivory. During the progression of the disease, the edge zone of loose, easily removable hair is well defined. Depending on the degree of spread of affected areas, several clinical varieties of dermatosis are isolated. When the location of the lesions on the periphery of the occipital and temporoparietal areas of alopecia is called band-shaped (ofiaz), sometimes diffuse alopecia surrounds the entire edge region and then this form is called koronovidnoy. With malignant course, the process progresses steadily, forming a total form of alopecia areata. In patients with a malignant form of alopecia at the same time defeat the scalp thinning eyebrows, eyelashes, hair fall in a mustache and beard, pubic hair, armpits and even disappear vellus hair around the skin surface. The course of the disease is torpid, prone to relapse. Hair grows gradually from the center to the periphery, separate islands; The newly growing hair is at first thin, atrophic, discolored and only gradually, slowly acquiring a normal structure. The disease may be associated with leukocytosis, eosinophilia, anemia, lymphocytosis, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and hypergammaglobulinemia dysproteinemia.

Diagnosis. Diagnosis of baldness is based on the characteristics of clinical symptoms. Differential diagnosis is performed with microsporia, superficial trichophytosis and small-nosed baldness in patients with secondary syphilis.


Negative data from microscopic and luminescent studies of hair and scales on fungi can exclude dermatophytosis. The diagnosis of syphilitic alopecia is excluded on the basis of negative serological reactions and the absence of other manifestations of syphilitic infection.


Treatment of alopecia. Currently, in the treatment of alopecia areata attention is paid to microelements – zinc, copper, iron preparations. Zinc oxide is administered orally 0.05-0.1 g 2-3 times a day, in courses from 1 to 5-6 months, in combination with gemostimulin 0.25-0.5 g as well 2-3 times a day after meals . The effect on the occurrence of any form of alopecia has iron deficiency even in the absence of anemia, therefore iron preparations are also advisable in the appointment of photochemotherapy. UFV is combined with the intake of furocoumarinic agents (puvalene, Beroxane, ammifurin, psoralen). Children under 5 years of photosensitizing drugs do not prescribe inside, and instead of UVD, they apply lubrication with Rosenthal paste. To stimulate active hair growth hormonal preparations are used: glucocorticoids, thyroidin, somatotropin, anabolic drugs (nerobol and its analogs). Hormonal preparations can be rationally combined with vitamins A, E, C, B2, B6, B12, PP. In order to restore microcirculation in the lesions, trental, andecalin, ATP, and parmidinum are prescribed.


Assign funds that normalize the hemostasis and rheological indicators of the blood: tiklit, riboxin, polyene, piyavit in combination with photochemotherapy.


In the treatment of focal alopecia, a 2% solution of minoxidil (Rogaine) and betamethasone dipropionate (ointment diprogen, Beloderm), phytosan-2 is used.


In connection with the current concentration of autoimmune genesis of alopecia, local applications of dinitrochlorobenzene (DNHB) are recommended. It is believed that the inflammatory foci in the place of rubbing DHCP inhibit the formation of pathological immune complexes that hamper the synthesis of keratin in the hair follicles. For external treatment with various forms of baldness, numerous irritating and tonic stirring suspensions, ointments, creams, aerosols are used. More effective creams and ointments containing glucocorticoids, estrogens, androgens, naphthalan alcohol, Rosenthal paste, psoriasin ointment. Often used with good results are alcoholic and ethereal stirring suspensions containing dimexide, andecalin, lidaz, sulfur, valerian.


Physiotherapeutic methods also use irrigation with ethyl chloride, cryomassage with liquid nitrogen and carbonic acid snow, darsonvalization, vacuum massage, diathermy of the cervical sympathetic nodes, massage of the collar zone, phonophoresis of foci of alopecia with hydrocortisone and Aevitis, magnetotherapy. The combination of general therapy with the simultaneous application of external means that improve microcirculation, stimulating the formation of hair keratin, contributes to the restoration of the follicular apparatus and the renewal of the hairline.








Binge eating

Overeating is a disorder of food intake, the characteristic features of which are the absorption of excess food and the inability to stop at the right time.

Causes of overeating

In modern society, regular or episodic overeating is common to almost everyone. Many people experience the consequences of this disease on themselves, but do not always attach importance to them.

Common causes of excessive absorption of food are:

  • Insensitivity of the human stomach to small changes in the amount of food due to the ability to stretch, so the feeling of satiety appears only 15-20 minutes after a meal;
  • The loss of selectivity in relation to food, that is, people are guided not by the utility and nutritional value of the product, but by looking at its appearance, aroma, availability, ease and speed of cooking. Besides, the subconscious of a person is influenced by a lot of advertising;
  • Masking the need for water (thirst) or in nutrients under the feeling of hunger. This reason for overeating is due to the fact that fast food, which is increasingly used by modern people, is practically devoid of vitamins, useful amino acids, micro- and macro elements;
  • Giving food a new meaning that differs from the true (replenishment of energy costs). For example, a business lunch in a restaurant, when it is understood that all guests will eat, regardless of whether they are hungry;
  • Psychological overeating. This group includes “jamming” of stress, bad mood or tragic events, understated self-esteem and self-doubt, food as a consolation.

Symptoms of overeating

After understanding the reasons for the excessive consumption of food, it is necessary to find out the signs of this disorder in order to take timely measures and not to bring the situation to obesity.

So, the main symptoms of overeating are as follows:

  • Increased body weight or constant weight fluctuations;
  • Sleep disturbance. After overeating the body is difficult to fall asleep, because the digestive processes continue;
  • Failure in the work of the gastrointestinal tract, a feeling of discomfort (increased gas formation and bloating);
  • Absorption of food at any time even in the absence of hunger;
  • The use of a larger volume of food while maintaining the old routine of the day and lifestyle;
  • Uncontrolled reception of food, for example, when watching TV or reading. Distracting factors not only interfere with the aroma and taste of food, but also make it difficult to determine the moment of saturation;
  • Depression resulting from the above symptoms of overeating. Also, nutritionists distinguish such psychological manifestations of gluttony as: striving is in solitude, an inner sense of guilt and dislike for oneself.

Also, nutritionists distinguish such psychological manifestations of gluttony as: striving is in solitude, an inner sense of guilt and dislike for oneself.

Consequences of overeating

The danger of overeating is so serious that doctors insist: getting up from the table follows with a slight sense of hunger. Otherwise, metabolic disorders will not keep you waiting, which will affect the work of all internal organs.

The first consequences of overeating hit the heart. The weight of a person grows, and with it all organs increase, so the heart has to saturate more space with blood. Cardiac contractions are amplified, and the muscular walls of the human “motor” thicken. As a consequence, hypertension and pressure problems occur.

The second organ that suffers after overeating is the liver. When it exceeds the amount of essential fats, it becomes their immediate source. Almost all cells in the body are filled with fat. This seriously affects not only the liver and heart, but also the intestines – the whole intestinal tract suffers. Cases of diseases such as cholecystitis, gastritis, colitis and chronic pancreatitis are becoming more frequent.

Another consequence of overeating is a violation of the hormonal cycle due to a deficiency of thyroxine. Women have problems with menstruation, and this threatens infertility. Men have an erection disorder.

It is also worth noting that overweight is an additional burden on the spine and joints, which wear out prematurely.

How to avoid overeating

You can cope with overeating yourself, but you need to constantly monitor food intake. The basic rules that should be adhered to:

  • Eat on time, concentrate on food and not be distracted;
  • Stop all snacks, gorging on the main meals;
  • There is always sitting, as it helps to stick to the regime and not be distracted during the meal;
  • Do not turn food into a reward or stimulant, for this you can find other ways;
  • Try not to eat in the first 15 minutes after coming home, as fatigue and hunger are one of the reasons for overeating.

Treatment of overeating

It is rather difficult to identify food disorders, since shame, denial and secrecy are the true companions of these diseases, so the disease may remain undetected for a long time. The disorder is recognized only when a person seeks help in losing weight or wants to get rid of health problems caused by obesity.

Studies that diagnose overeating do not exist. If you suspect a disorder, the doctor looks at the patient’s history, appoints a series of examinations and tests to exclude physical pathologies. If as a result of these manipulations no physical disease is detected, the specialist directs the person to a psychologist who can diagnose and treat the symptoms of overeating.

If you can not cope with the disease yourself, you can contact a doctor who will prescribe medications that reduce your appetite.

The problem of overeating in children

The perpetrators of eating disorders in children are almost always parents who at all costs tend to feed the child even when he absolutely does not want to eat. After overeating, the baby’s stomach stretches and holds much more than the amount of food needed by the child’s body.

In addition, adults come up with various distracting maneuvers, for example, feeding a child during a game or watching cartoons, which should not be done categorically. With this approach, the process of food consumption becomes uncontrollable and automatic, the baby develops a bad habit of eating after a book or a TV, and all this leads to obesity.

Negative effects of overeating are obvious, but it is worth noting that not only regular consumption of large amounts of food, but also occasional festive delicacies can lead to them. You should not go to a party to try all the dishes on the table, but to talk with friends or relatives. It must be remembered that even a single excess of the allowable amount of food is fraught with serious health problems.

19 signs of thyroid problems

The thyroid gland, which is in the neck and has the shape of a butterfly, can have a dramatic effect on a huge number of body functions, and if you are a woman over 35, then you have a high risk of thyroid disease – by some estimates, more than 30%.

Women have problems with the thyroid gland more often than men 10 times, – says the physician Robin Miller.


Located above the “Adam’s apple”, this gland produces a specific hormone – thyroid (TN), which regulates, among other things, your body temperature, metabolism and palpitations. Problems can begin when your is hyperactive or vice versa, not active enough. If the thyroid gland works poorly, then it produces too little TN, if it is hyperactive, it is too much. Because of what shchitovidka can fail? These can be genetic causes, autoimmune attacks, pregnancy, stress, malnutrition or toxins in the environment, but experts are not so sure. Because thyroid hormones with the body are full – from the brain to the bowels – diagnosing the disease can be a daunting task. Below are the signs that your thyroid gland may not be in order.

1. Your strength is exhausted

The feeling of fatigue and lack of energy is associated with many causes, but all of them are related to hypothyroidism – a disease in which thyroid hormones are not produced enough. If in the mornings or throughout the day after a night’s sleep you still feel tired, this may indicate that your thyroid gland may not work actively. If the blood circulation and cells circulate too low a number of thyroid hormones, then this means that your muscles do not receive signals to start work. “The first of the signals I see is fatigue,” says Dr. Miller.

2. You are depressed

An unusual feeling of depression or sadness can also be a symptom of hypothyroidism. Why? Because producing too few hormones, the thyroid can affect the level of the neurotransmitter “good health” – serotonin – in the brain. If the thyroid gland is not sufficiently active, other body systems also “roll down”, and therefore it is not surprising that our mood also falls.

3. Nervousness and anxiety

Feeling of anxiety is associated with hyperthyroidism, when the thyroid gland produces too many thyroid hormones. Overflowing with constant signals “all-systems – forward!”, Your metabolism and the whole body can be overexcited. If you feel like you can not relax, then your thyroid can work hyperactively.

4. Changed appetite and taste preferences

Increased appetite can talk about hyperthyroidism, when too much of the hormones produced can make you hunger all the time. The only difference and, we can say, the “plus” of this is that in this case the malfunctioning of the thyroid gland due to its hyperactivity compensates for the use of excessive calories due to increased appetite, so the person eventually does not gain weight.

On the other hand, insufficient activity of the thyroid gland can create confusion in your perception of tastes and smells.

5. Fuzzy thinking

Of course, fuzzy thinking can be the result of lack of sleep or aging, but cognitive abilities can get a significant impact and as a result of malfunctions in the thyroid gland. Too high levels of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) can hinder concentration, and too low (hypothyroidism) can lead to forgetfulness and the “nebula in thinking”. “When we treat patients for hypothyroidism, they are often surprised at how quickly this” nebula “in their head passes, and how much their feelings become more acute,” says Dr. Miller. “Many women think that this is something that accompanies the menopause, although in reality it’s a problem with the thyroid.”

6. Loss of interest in sex

Weak or lack of interest in sex may be a side effect of thyroid disease. Low levels of hormones can cause low libido, but the general effect of other hypothyroid symptoms – lack of energy, pain in the body – can also play a role in this matter.

7. Everything trembles before my eyes

This “trembling” can appear due to rapid heart rate. You may feel that the heart is fluttering or misses a beat-the other, or is beating too hard or too fast. You can note such feelings and on your wrist or on the place of pulse measurement on the throat or neck. A “trembling” of the heart or a strong heartbeat can be a sign that your system is full of hormones (hyperthyroidism).

8. Dry skin

Dry skin, if it is also itchy, may be a sign of hypothyroidism. Changes in the texture and appearance of the skin are most likely due to a slowing of metabolism (which is caused by low levels of hormones), which can reduce sweating. Skin without enough fluid can quickly become dry and begin to peel off. In addition, the nails become brittle and they show voluminous longitudinal bands.

9. Intestine began to work unpredictably

People with hypothyroidism sometimes complain of constipation. Insufficient work shchitovidki causes slowing down the digestive process.

“There is no movement in your intestines,” says Dr. Miller. “This is one of the three main symptoms of hypothyroidism, observed by me.”

On the other hand, too high activity of the thyroid gland can cause diarrhea or more frequent movement in the intestine. All this can be a sign of hyperthyroidism.

10. The periodicity of menstruation has changed

Longer menstrual periods with large discharge and pain may be a sign of hypothyroidism when an insufficient amount of hormones is produced. Periods between menstruation can be shortened.

In hyperthyroidism, a high TH level causes a variety of irregular menstruation. Periods shorter or longer, menstruation can take place in a very small amount. “I always ask my patients about their cycles and their regularity,” says Dr. Miller. She found a close relationship between irregular cycles and thyroid problems. And if the months pass very hard, then she checks for more and anemia.

11. Pain in the limbs and muscles

Sometimes this pain is due to the increased work of muscles and limbs. However, if you feel an uncaused and unexpected tingling, numbness, or just pain – in the hands, feet, legs or hands – this may be a sign of hypothyroidism. Over time, an inadequate level of thyroid hormones can destroy the nerves that send signals from your brain and spinal cord throughout the body. This is expressed in such “unexplained” tingling and pain.

12. High blood pressure

Increased pressure may be a symptom of thyroid disease. The cause of this may be hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism. By some estimates, people suffering from hypothyroidism have a 2-3 times higher risk of developing hypertension. According to one theory, a low amount of thyroid hormones can slow down the heartbeat, which can affect the force of expulsion of blood and the flexibility of the walls of the vessels. Both can cause an increase in blood pressure.

13. Temperature at zero

Feeling cold or chills can have roots in hypothyroidism. Inactivity of body systems due to low levels of hormones means less energy in the body, which is burned by cells. Less energy is less heat.

On the other hand, too active thyroid stimulates the cells to burn too much energy. Therefore, people with hyperthyroidism sometimes feel heat and sweat profusely.

14. Hysterectomy and strange sensations in the neck

Changes in the voice or feeling “lump in the throat” can be a sign of malfunction in the thyroid gland. One way to test this is to properly examine the neck for any signs of an increase in the thyroid gland. You can check your thyroid yourself by following these recommendations:

Take the mirror in your hand and, watching the throat, drink the water. Your task is to monitor the appearance of any protuberances or protrusions in the thyroid gland that is below the “Adam’s apple” and above the clavicle. You may need to do this several times to understand where the thyroid gland actually is. If you notice any bumps or something suspicious – contact your doctor.

15. Failures in sleep mode

Do you want to sleep all the time? It can be because of hypothyroidism. An “incomplete” thyroid can slow the body’s functions to such a degree that sleep (even in the daytime) may seem like a brilliant idea.

Can not sleep? This may be due to hyperthyroidism. A high level of hormones can be expressed in anxiety and a rapid pulse, which can make it difficult to go to sleep or even cause a wake up in the middle of the night.

16. Weight gain

Plus two sizes in clothes – the reasons for this circumstance are so many that it is unlikely that your doctor will consider an increase in everything as a symptom of a potential thyroid disease. However, weight gain is one of the main signals to the need to test the thyroid gland for Dr. Miller. “Patients say they do not eat more than usual, but they still gain weight,” she says. “They do the exercises, but nothing changes. They can not throw it off. “Almost always the cause is in the thyroid gland, Miller says.

On the other hand, unexpected weight loss may signal hyperthyroidism.

17. Hair thinens or falls out

Dry, brittle hair or even hair loss can be a sign of hypothyroidism. A low level of hormones disrupts the cycle of hair growth and translates many follicles into a “rest” mode, which is expressed in hair loss. “Sometimes even the whole body, including the eyebrows.” “Many patients talk about hair loss,” Miller says, they say, “my hairdresser says that my hair falls out and I need to ask the doctor about my condition thyroid glands. ” In hairdressing salons are more aware of thyroid problems than some doctors! ”

Excess thyroid hormones can also affect the amount of your hair. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism that affect the hair are usually expressed in the thinning of the hair only on the head.

18. Problems with pregnancy

If you unsuccessfully try to get pregnant for a long time, then perhaps this is due to an excess or a lack of thyroid hormones. Difficulties with conception are associated with a high risk of undiagnosed thyroid problems. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can interfere with the process of ovulation, which affects the ability to conceive. Diseases of the thyroid gland also lead to problems that arise during pregnancy.

19. High cholesterol

A high level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which does not depend on diet, exercise or medication, may be related to hypothyroidism. An increase in the level of “bad” cholesterol “may be caused by a” defect “of the thyroid gland and cause anxiety. If hypothyroidism is not treated, then it can lead to heart problems, including heart failure.

Test thyroid

If you have one or more of these symptoms and suspect a cause for a thyroid gland, consult a doctor and ask for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TTT) tests, free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), make an ultrasound of the thyroid – says Dr. Miller. By results of tests, on signs and survey to you synthetic hormones can register. In testing and prescribing treatment for thyroid diseases, there may be several trials and errors, so prepare to visit the doctor several times in order to be given the right dosage.


If it is a shchitovidke, then be prepared to be your own lawyer. Some doctors may neglect thyroid diagnoses despite the fact that the American Association of Endocrinologists in 2003 narrowed the norm range for thyroid hormones from 0.5-5.0 to 0.3-3.04. This means that more women are among those who need treatment. “Find a doctor who heals, not just tests,” says Dr. Miller. “If you feel better at a certain dosage, then it has the same weight as the laboratory result.”

Lose weight with drugs!

Excess weight, in the vast majority of cases, requires treatment for a long period. People who need to lose extra pounds use a lot of money for this. It is undeniable that a healthy diet and regular physical activity, although not fast, but a much more natural way to lose weight. But there are drugs that can become active helpers in such a difficult struggle. The assortment of pharmacies is now full of various medicines, but they do not always act equally on every single organism. Being interested in the cost of medicines and their use, you should not forget to ask their degree of harmfulness to the body. And only after comparing the pros and cons can you choose the most suitable.

Preparations for weight loss are recommended for use by the following people:

  • those with BMI exceeding 30;
  • those with such diseases as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and a BMI above 27.

All drugs for weight loss are divided into several types, and at the moment the most accessible are those that are used for a short period of time – from 3-4 weeks to several months.

Overview of preparations

Of the most common can be identified drugs aimed at suppressing appetite. They are released in capsules or tablets, and are released freely, without a prescription.

The effect of losing weight is achieved through deception of the body, which is under their action, believes that it is full. Such pills work on increasing the level of serotonin and catecholamines, due to which the appetite decreases.

On sale, in addition to tablets, there are toffee, lollipops, and other products with this effect. They are more gentle compared to capsules.

There are a variety of pharmacies and diuretics. They often consist of various herbs, and remove all excess liquid from the body, eventually reducing the weight. But such preparations can not affect the fat layer. To all it is necessary to remember that together with the liquid useful minerals also leave, therefore simultaneously with them it is desirable to take medicines that will support the level of minerals. In addition to traditional diuretic collections of various herbs, there are also teas of so-called deep cleaning in the range of pharmacies. The principle of their action is always the same, and they differ only in names. Virtually all the fees are harmless, but it’s also not worth the wait. They are able to cleanse the body, put in order sleep, improve the overall condition, but long-term purification is always harmful to the body.

In order to disperse the metabolism, thermogenic preparations are used. Such fat burners are effective additives, and have a unique property of raising temperature, within acceptable, safe limits. And after the increase, all excess fat begins to be actively involved in energy metabolism, and literally burns. Because of this effect, the name “thermogenic fat burners” appeared. Such substances, in different volumes, are included in almost all additives for weight loss. But you need to know that you can only apply them to people with an absolutely healthy heart, and strictly follow the instructions on the package.

Pharmacies can also offer drugs that cause a sense of satiety. Getting into the stomach with a lot of water, which they need to drink, they swell and fill the stomach and as a result, the brain receives a signal of saturation. Such preparations still well conduct cleaning of the intestine, restoring its microflora. But for a good satiety effect, you need to use a fairly large portion of such tablets.

There is another kind of medication for weight loss. These are drugs that work in the intestines and block the absorption of calories, or blockers of calories. The origin of the drug is a vegetable, as it is based on the extract of white beans. The substances that make up the drug are able to block from 25 to 75 percent of calories per day, so weight loss goes without chemistry and naturally.

Effective drugs for weight loss, user recommendations

To reduce weight, the following preparations are usually used:

  • Triiodothyronine – hormones shchitovidki, produced synthetically.
  • Metformin – a drug for the treatment of diabetes.
  • Tophizepam – a sedative, with which you can achieve anorexigensic effect.
  • Clenbuterol – with the help of this drug treat bronchitis in farm animals.
  • Dietress – the substances of this drug affect the central nervous system, so that satiety during meals comes faster.
  • Rhelex microcrystalline cellulose – these drugs work by swelling in the stomach.
  • Xenical – its components block the absorption of fats. But along with this drug is always observed a special diet, developed by a doctor individually. One of its multiple pluses is the reduction of cholesterol in the blood.
  • Redoxin meridia – contain the substance sibutramine. It helps to regulate appetite, produce serotonin, and normalize metabolism.
  • Bromelite – consists of pineapple enzymes with the addition of fiber. He works, swelling in the stomach.
  • Chitosan is made of the shell of the Far Eastern crab. It blocks fat absorption, cleans and adsorbs.
  • Alli – Lipase inhibitor. When administered orlistat inhibits gastric and pancreatic lipases. As a result, the breakdown of food fats is violated and their absorption from the digestive tract decreases. With systematic use, this effect leads to a reduction in body weight in patients with obesity. Orlistat is practically not absorbed from the digestive tract and, in connection with this, practically does not have a resorptive effect.

There is a possibility that some preparations of Chinese origin contain substances such as sibutramine and fenfluramine. If taken without a prescription, unpredictable consequences may occur. Usually, all cases are described in reviews on forums, or groups in social networks:

  • I drank Xenical, Meridia, Slim Code, Chitosan and many other Chinese tablets. Kilograms disappear, but with improper nutrition they return back, taking prisoners and dropping them is already more difficult.
  • I bought capsules in the pharmacy that were advised at the forum, they had to beat off the appetite. After several days of reception, something strange began to happen to me, I woke up in the middle of the night and lay till morning without sleep, my head started to hurt, my tongue was covered with bloom.
  • Appetite disappeared and, following a diet, I lose up to three kilograms per week
  • Meridia is a great thing, I drank them and lost weight, but do not forget that this is a prescription drug.


To properly select a drug, you need a visit to the endocrinologist-doctor or a nutritionist, since any appointment requires an individual approach. At the consultation, the doctor will take into account the number of extra pounds (for the appointment of tablets, their number should be at least 30), various chronic diseases, general health.

In the pharmacy will help select drugs based on prescriptions. And by adding pills to a healthy diet and an active rhythm of life, you can achieve the desired result in losing weight much more quickly.

The standard course of taking medication is from 4 to 8 weeks, and the maximum allowed is 3 months. After stopping the intake, you should observe a moderate diet, otherwise weight loss is inevitable.

Tramadol (Tramal) in the treatment of acute and chronic pain syndromes

The main method of treatment of acute and chronic pain syndromes in modern medicine is systemic pharmacotherapy. The latter can be carried out with the help of various methods of administering the analgesic to the body (oral, rectal, sublingual, transdermal, injection), but in any case the drug is absorbed into the systemic bloodstream, and then to its site (in contrast to the regional a method of administering an analgesic, for example, perineurally, epidurally).

For the treatment of low intensity pain, according to WHO recommendations, different non-opioid analgesics are used, and for pain of moderate and high intensity, opioid analgesics are used. Non-opioid analgesics have a predominantly peripheral effect at the level of the focus of pain, have a small analgesic potential and are therefore only suitable for the elimination of mild pain. Opioids belong to the analgesics of the central action, realized through the endogenous opioid system of the organism at the level of the spinal cord and brain by inhibiting the ascending flow of painful impulses. They differ from each other in their analgesic potential and the ability to moderate or severe pain. Due to their good analgesic properties, opioids are widely used in various areas of medicine dealing with intense pain, especially in oncology and surgery.

Common to all opioids is the non-selective nature of their action, i.e., along with analgesia, they cause a number of other side effects and, at the same time, differ in the degree of severity of these or other properties, which is associated with individual features of their interaction with opioid receptors . An important condition for correct operation with opioids is knowledge of the mechanism of their action.

Mechanism of action and classification of opioids

All known opioids are divided into four main classes, depending on the nature of the interaction with the receptors.

The main class consists of opioid agonists or agonists of opioid m (mu) receptors, including substances and preparations of different analgesic potency, including a potent narcotic heroin, traditional strong opioid analgesics – morphine, fentanyl, pyrithramide, and less strong – promedol, prosidol, tramadol, codeine. This group of opioids has such side effects associated with depression of stem structures and centers of the medulla oblongata, such as sedation (less often euphoria), general weakness, oppression of the cough reflex, in large doses – respiratory depression (bradypnoea, apnea) and blood circulation (hypotension, bradycardia) . Along with these inhibitory influences, opioid agonists have an activating effect on the emetic centers with the possible development of nausea (vomiting), as well as smooth muscle of the hollow organs, resulting in motor disorders of the latter (constipation, retention of urine and bile, tendency to bronchospasm). All these serious side effects are most pronounced in the most potent opioid analgesics (fentanyl, morphine) and are less frequent in drugs with less analgesic potential.

All opioid agonists, apart from tramadol, have a specific ability to cause dependence – physical and mental, and therefore they are included in the International Convention on Drugs as narcotic drugs under control, and they are subject to special rules of appointment, discharge, accounting, storage, transportation, reporting , determined by the relevant orders of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The exemption of tramadol does not apply to drugs, because according to extensive world and domestic experience, no clear data are available for the development of dependence on tramadol. This drug is considered to be a potent agent and is prescribed on a prescription form for potent substances. A characteristic property of strong opioids is also tolerance, that is, a reduction in the analgesic effect with an increase in the duration of opioid administration, which requires prolonged therapy of a gradual dose increase to maintain anesthesia. So, the dose of morphine can increase tens of times compared to the initial one during treatment for several months, reaching or even exceeding 1000 mg / day.

The next class of opioids – partial agonists of opioid m-receptors – is buprenorphine, similar in properties to morphine, but with a longer and slightly less analgesic and other side effects.

In comparison with other classical opioid agonists, buprenorphine has a lower drug potential, but in Russia it is also classified as a drug section.

In contrast to morphine, buprenorphine has a “ceiling” of analgesic dose, over which the analgesic effect ceases to increase. This limit is determined by different authors in the range of 2.4-5 mg / day, which can limit the continuation of buprenorphine therapy in chronic pain syndrome and is a signal for the transition to a more potent opioid, morphine, which does not have a “ceiling” of the analgesic dose.

The class of mixed opioid agonist-antagonists includes three drugs (pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine), which are k (kappa) -receptor agonists and m-receptor antagonists. As k-receptor agonists, these opioids cause less pronounced analgesia than morphine, and have a slightly different spectrum of side effects (sedation predominates, nausea, dizziness, and respiratory depression are less common). Being antagonists of m-receptors, opioids of this class can weaken or eliminate the effects of classical opioid agonists, including analgesia. In this regard, the combined use of opioid agonist-antagonists and morphine analgesics is inexpedient.

Drugs of this class, like buprenorphine, have a Ceiling effect. Agonists-antagonists of the last generation butorphanol and nalbuphine (as opposed to pentazocine) are not included in the register of narcotic drugs and refer to potent substances. They have an auxiliary role in the treatment of pain syndromes due to their antagonistic relationship with opioids of the main class of agonists.

The properties of the s (sigma) -receptor agonist are ketamine, which has a moderate analgesic effect and a whole complex of side-activating influences (tachycardia, hypertension, psychomotor agitation).

An antagonist of opioids of all groups is naloxone, which quickly neutralizes all of their effects, including analgesia.

Existing opioid analgesics differ not only in the nature of the interaction with certain opioid receptors, but also in the characteristics of binding them to strength and duration. The higher the affinity of the opioid to the receptor, the stronger the analgesia, the longer the bond with the receptor, the longer the analgesia.

The choice of opioid for the treatment of moderate and high intensity pain

An important consequence of the above analysis of the mechanism of action of opioids is the generally accepted provision on the main role in the opioid therapy of pain in analgesics belonging to the class of opioid agonists, since the preparations of all other groups have certain limitations (the effect of the “ceiling” of the analgesic dose, antagonism in relation to the most powerful analgesic group of morphine, undesirable side effects). This situation is especially important to consider in the treatment of chronic pain syndrome, in order to obtain the optimal result of anesthesia and to avoid possible failures.

The spectrum of existing opioid agonists is quite wide and includes, as mentioned above, analgesics of different potencies, capable of eliminating moderate and severe pain, and indications for the treatment of such pain exist in different fields of medicine.

In what cases is the appointment of an opioid analgesic for analgesia and how to choose the right opioid? For this, first of all, it is necessary to be guided by certain general rules.

  • Indications for the appointment of an opioid arise when treatment with non-opioid analgesics does not lead to the elimination of pain, that is, the pain exceeds the degree of weakness. In the treatment of chronic pain syndrome in oncological patients, opioid agonists should be preferred.
  • In determining the intensity of pain should be guided by a simple scale of verbal pain assessments (SHVO): 0 – no pain, 1 point – weak, 2 points – moderate, 3 points – strong, 4 points – the strongest pain. For the treatment of moderate and high intensity pain in Russia, the instructions of the RF Ministry of Health recommend: tramadol, prosidol for moderate pain, buprenorphine for severe pain and morphine or fentanyl (including in transdermal form) for the most severe pain.
  • The right to prescribe opioid analgesics related to narcotic drugs is available to doctors authorized to work with drugs (most often in oncology and surgery).
  • Opioids – non-narcotics classified as potent agents (tramadol, butorphanol, nalbuphine), can be prescribed on prescription form for strong remedies by any doctor in consultation with the department head if it is necessary to stop pain in the patient, not eliminated by non-opioid analgesics (articular, neurogenic and other non-oncological pain). Among opioid agonists, the only non-narcotic drug is tramadol.

Clinical pharmacology of tramadol

Tramadol (Tramal) is an opioid agonist, standing alone among all representatives of opioids of this class, primarily because, unlike them, it does not belong to narcotic drugs. This is confirmed by extensive clinical experience of its use throughout the world and special scientific research of its narcotic potential.

The volunteers who received the maximum dose of tramadol (Tramala, hereafter referred to as “T”), and oncological patients, long treated with this drug for pain, conducted a drug dependence test using an antagonist of naloxone opioids. It is known that the introduction of naloxone in the body of heroin and other addicts immediately causes the development of the withdrawal syndrome (withdrawal syndrome), manifested by severe mental and physical symptoms: a sharp psychomotor agitation, fear of death, panic, acute cramping in the abdomen, vomiting, chills, trembling , tachycardia, etc. In the studied people, as in the experiment on animals, against the background of long-term “T” reception, naloxone did not cause these symptoms or their manifestations were indistinct and did not reach the gradation of “sind th cancellation mild. ” The probability of mental dependence on “T” is minimal; in these studies, the drug has not revealed a euphoric or dysphoric effect. It has been established that in patients with opiate addiction “T”, as with placebo, does not lead to elimination of subjective discomfort against abstinence, that is, it does not have a drug substituting action (unlike other opioids, promedola, butorphanol, nalbuphine, buprenorphine) .

Unlike other opioid agonists, “T” has a double mechanism of action. It is established that analgesia caused by “T” is not completely eliminated by the opioid antagonist naloxone and along with the opioid mechanism is realized by additional inhibition of painful impulse with the participation of serotonin and adrenergic systems. That is, by the mechanism of analgesic action “T” is not completely identical to other opioid agonists.

Recently, Russian media reported on the use of “T” drug addicts as a substitute for heroin and other strong drugs. As a professional, I consider it necessary to give explanations in connection with the erroneous interpretation by journalists of the properties of “T”. On television, in detail, a video camera recorded a case of death of a drug addict after intravenous injection of retarded “T” tablets intended for ingestion. Such a mixture could contain any toxic substances for the body when injected into the bloodstream, so it is unlikely that the root cause in this case can be considered “T”.

In an article published by the Moskovsky Komsomolets newspaper on August 28, 2002, “T” is characterized as “a potent narcotic drug from a group of heroin synthetics, very similar in effect to methadone.” This characteristic is absolutely untrue, therefore, experts consider this publication as “unprofessional and tendentious.” Neither the heroin nor the methadone “T” has anything to do with both pharmacological properties and clinical effect. It is fundamentally different from them and from other narcotic analgesics by a milder action and a minimal narcotic potential, which is described in detail above. However, uncontrolled use of “T”, as well as any other medicinal product, can lead to serious consequences, since all medicines without exceeding the therapeutic doses, without exception, cause a variety of side effects and exhibit toxic properties. This also applies to a wide range of non-prescription drugs, including analgesics. “T” according to the order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation of 23.08.1999 No. 328 “On the rational prescribing of medicines, the rules for prescribing prescriptions for them and the order of their dispensing by pharmacy institutions” should be issued on the prescription of a doctor written out on a form for potent means.

Below is a description of the main clinical effects of “T”, which in their nature are similar to those of other opioid agonists, but are much less pronounced. This applies to both analgesia and side effects.

Analgesic potential “T” according to different authors, is from 0.1 to 0.2 of the morphine potential, it is equal to or slightly higher than the potential of codeine; the effectiveness of 50 mg of “T” is equivalent to 1000 mg of metamizole, that is, “T” belongs to analgesics intended for pain of moderate intensity.

The most important criterion for the safety of any opioid is the severity of its central depressive effect on respiration and circulation. Numerous studies have not established significant respiratory depression in post-operative patients under the influence of “T” in the range of therapeutic doses from 0.5 to 2 mg per 1 kg of body weight, even with intravenous bolus administration, whereas morphine at a therapeutic dose of 0.14 mg / kg statistically significant and significantly reduces the respiratory rate and increases the stress of CO2 in the exhaled air. That is, in recommended doses “T” does not cause depression of respiration, but it can not be excluded that it is possible when these doses are exceeded. The “T” does not exert an oppressive effect on the circulation. On the contrary, with intravenous administration of 0.75-1.5 mg / kg, it can increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 10-15 mm Hg. and slightly increase the heart rate with a rapid return to the original values, which is explained by the sympathomimetic component of its action. There was no effect of “T” on the level of histamine in the blood and on mental functions. “T” is metabolized in the liver. Only one of its metabolites is active. The half-life of “T” with oral or intravenous administration is 5-6 hours, it can increase in patients with impaired liver function, kidney function. About 90% of the oral dose of “T” is excreted by the kidneys. “T” has beneficial pharmacokinetic characteristics. Its absolute availability with intramuscular injection approaches 100%, with rectal – 78%, with oral – 68% (with a subsequent increase with the continuation of therapy). These indicators are significantly higher than morphine and pethidine. The peak concentration of “T” in plasma during oral administration is reached in 1.6-2 hours.

Experience in the clinical use of Tramal

The first publications on the use of “T” in the clinic date back to the beginning of the 1980s, ie, its medical application has already been 20 years old. During this time, the indications for the treatment of “T” were determined for various acute and chronic pain syndromes, its analgesic and side effects, its optimal methods and methods of its application in different fields of medicine were clarified: oncology, surgery, traumatology, rheumatology, neurology, cardiology, etc. .

In the practice of the MNIOR them. PA Herzen “T” is widely used for treatment of both acute (postoperative – p / o BS) and chronic (CBC) pain syndrome in cancer patients. The general experience of its use in the institute exceeds 6000 observations, and the duration of therapy varied from several days to many months with CHB.

With the appointment of “T” we are guided by the general principles of drug treatment of pain syndromes. The main criterion is the intensity of pain estimated by the above scale (SHVO). Indications for the appointment of “T” for both CHD and n / a BS is pain of moderate intensity (2 points according to ShVO). There is no need to prescribe “T” for mild pain (1 point for SHVO), where anesthesia can be achieved with the help of non-opioid analgesics (different NSAIDs, paracetamol preparations). “T” is not shown, and with severe pain (3-4 points according to the ShVO), since it is insufficient to eliminate it, and in these cases more powerful opioids should be used to avoid further strengthening of the pain syndrome.

Most often, in opioid therapy, including “T”, it is advisable to combine opioids with non-opioid components in order to increase the efficacy and tolerability of anesthesia, although monotherapy is also acceptable.

Pathogenetically justified is the addition of “T” to one of the non-opioid analgesics of peripheral action that suppress the production of the mediator of prostaglandin pain in the focus of pain (ketoprofen, lornoxicam, diclofenac or others) and / or the central action that inhibits this mediator at the level of the pain structures of the spinal cord (paracetamol). This makes it possible to obtain complete anesthesia with a reduction in the need for opioids, i.e. when used in reduced doses and with less chance of side effects. Clinical confirmation of the feasibility of such a tactic of working with opioids is contained in numerous publications, including in the work of the staff of our institute.

The choice of dosage form, dose “T” and drugs for combination with it depends on the nature of the pain syndrome, its location, individual characteristics of the patient.

Medicinal forms and dosages of Tramal. Tramal is presented in a variety of forms:

Solution for injection (ampoules 1 and 2 ml), 50 mg in 1 ml.

Capsules 50 mg

Candles 100 mg

Tablets retard 100 mg, 150 mg.

Recommended single dose 50-100 mg; daily up to 400 mg. The drug is administered 4 times a day. Tramal in these forms is produced and available in Russia.

Tramal in chronic pain syndrome of different origin is widely used and successfully. In this article, we consider this using the example of chronic pain syndrome (CBC) of oncological genesis, which we constantly deal with in our work.

Taking into account the experience of the institute on the use of “T” for the treatment of CHD in more than 1000 patients, it is advisable to prescribe it for uncomplicated moderate (2 points) somatic HBSS (tumor or metastasis of the bones of the skeleton, soft tissues, muscles, skin, external lymph nodes) or visceral (damage to internal organs and / or membranes – pleura, peritoneum, internal lymph nodes) type. All incurable oncological patients pass through this phase of CHD, and the duration of moderate-intensity CHF varies widely, which is due to individual growth rates of the tumor.

Practice shows that the appointment of “T” is not indicated in severe CHD, complicated by a neuropathic component due to the involvement of nerve formations. In these cases, stronger opioid analgesics are required in combination with complex special therapy.

The “T” is prescribed when the initial non-opioid therapy (NSAIDs, paracetamol preparations) becomes inefficient, preserving this therapy, which has its own pathogenetic orientation, supplementing the action of the opioid.

The presence of different dosage forms makes it possible to choose the optimal one for a particular patient. In most cases, the usual oral forms (capsules, retard tablets) are applicable, and in the absence of such a possibility (patients with dysphagia in esophagus and stomach cancer) another non-invasive route of administration, rectal, can be used. In the form of an injection of “T” with prolonged treatment, CHD is usually not used because of invasiveness.

For long-term therapy, retard tablets are the most convenient, which should be taken twice a day: 100-150-200 mg every 12 hours. The duration of all other forms of “T” is 5-6 hours, so they are taken 4 times a day.

Selection of the optimal dose of “T” begins with a minimum single dose of 50 mg (1 capsule) in order to evaluate both the analgesic effect and the tolerability of the drug. With good analgesia and tolerability, this single dose, administered 3-4 times a day, is retained (taking into account the duration of analgesia). If insufficiency of anesthesia is not sufficient, after 40-60 minutes, a second similar dose should be taken and its effect evaluated. If after 1 hour, sufficient anesthesia is achieved, the therapy is carried out with single doses of 100 mg to 4 times per day (capsules or suppositories), but it is more advisable to recommend a long-term retard tablets 150-200 mg twice a day, which is much more convenient (first dose in the morning after a dream, the second – in the evening before a dream). Additional non-opioid analgesics are prescribed according to their own scheme.

The clinical study “T” in cancer patients with CHD showed that with initial moderate pain (2 points), the drug always causes it to be eliminated, but with more severe pain, anesthesia with the above therapeutic doses is not achieved, so if a single dose of “T” is 100 mg in non-cardiac form is not sufficient to relieve pain, it means that the intensity of pain is underestimated and it is necessary to strengthen analgesic therapy. This can be achieved either by switching from “T” to a stronger opioid while preserving the old non-opioid therapy, or by adding another non-narcotic analgesic not previously used. For example, if after the appointment of “T” against the background of previous therapy with diclofenac, ketoprofen or other NSAIDs the pain decreased but did not stop (there was a weak pain), it is advisable to connect one of the paracetamol preparations: Panadol 500-1000 mg 4 times a day or Solpadein contains, in addition to paracetamol, small doses of codeine and caffeine) at the same doses per paracetamol. Solpadein, despite the presence of codeine, is not a registration medication due to a minimal dose of codeine, which, however, well complements the “T” effect, as an opioid of the same class with it. A similar combination of “T” with non-narcotic analgesics may be effective for a more or less prolonged period, depending on the course of the oncological process.

Treatment of HBs on the basis of “T” is usually well tolerated by patients. When you achieve analgesia, the quality of life improves – night sleep, mood, physical activity. This “T” advantageously differs from more powerful opioids (morphine, buprenorphine), which, while causing analgesia, simultaneously lead to the suppression of physical and mental activity and other significant side effects. Estimating the tolerability of “T”, it should be said that the nature of its side properties is not fundamentally different from those inherent in morphine and its derivatives, however, the frequency and degree of their expression in “T” is much less. It is much more “soft” opioid than morphine, both in analgesic and in side effects.

According to the literature and own experience, side symptoms in the treatment of “T” are observed in about half of patients and are manifested most often by transient drowsiness, less often – nausea (very rarely vomiting), dry mouth. Constipation complicating the therapy with codeine or morphine is not typical for “T”, as is the retention of urine. Perhaps transient dizziness. Drowsiness and nausea, manifested at the beginning of treatment “T”, usually terminate within 1-2 weeks and in most cases do not require correction. In the presence of such symptoms, patients are recommended to lie down after taking “T” for 30-40 minutes. With persistent nausea, the appointment of an anti-emetic is indicated (metoclopramide 10-20 mg 3-4 times a day with a gradual cessation as nausea subsides). The frequency and severity of these adverse symptoms are similar when using different “T” dosage forms. When using candles, symptoms of irritation of the rectal mucosa (soreness and tenesmus) are possible. To avoid these phenomena, the candle should be injected as deep as possible – beyond the sphincter, into the cavity of the ampulla of the rectum.

The cases of depression of respiration and blood circulation under the influence of “T” in the indicated therapeutic doses, we have not observed, and in the literature they are also not described.

Our data on the efficacy and safety of “T” in cancer patients with CHD are confirmed by the results of a multicenter “T” study in Russia with different pain syndromes in 2000 outpatients.

In our practice, Tramal is a means of choosing among opioids an average analgesic potency for the treatment of moderate-intensity CBS. Its advantages:

  • effectiveness combined with good tolerability and the absence of dangerous side effects;
  • status of non-narcotic drug, which increases its accessibility for patients, facilitates the work of medical personnel in its appointment and accounting.

Tramal in the treatment of postoperative pain. Most of the surgical interventions in various areas of surgery, including oncology, are operations of moderate trauma. In oncology – these are such widespread operations as radical mastectomy, thyroidectomy, transvaginal amputation of the cervix, removal of soft tissue tumors, etc. Compared with radical intracavitary these operations are less traumatic, but they are quite extensive and are accompanied by a significant postoperative pain syndrome requiring the use of opioid analgesics. However, traditional opioids (morphine, promedol, etc.) for patients after such operations are of little use, since their use, especially in the early period after general anesthesia, is dangerous due to the development of central respiratory depression and requires monitoring of the patient in an intensive care setting. Meanwhile, according to their condition, patients after such operations do not need to be admitted to the intensive care unit, but they need a good and safe anesthesia.

In our institute, the optimal tactics of analgesia for operations of this type has been constantly developed and for the last few years. It consists in the combination of “T” with analgesics of peripheral action from a number of NSAIDs or metamizole. Preferably use one of the NSAIDs according to the principle of prophylactic analgesia, i.e. with the administration of the first dose before the beginning of the operation and with the continuation of therapy with this drug after surgery in combination with “T”. This tactic has been successfully used in more than 5000 patients.

Prophylactic preoperative doses of NSAIDs are 30 mg for ketorolac, 100 mg for ketoprofen, 8 mg for lornoxicam; The dose of metamizole is 1000 mg. Postoperative analgesia is maintained by the planned use of one of these peripheral analgesics in the recommended daily dosage in combination with “T”, the average analgesic daily dose of which varies, according to our data, from 345-29 mg on the 1st day after surgery to 205-16 mg (4th day). At the same time, good analgesia is achieved in the active state of the operated patients without serious side effects characteristic of morphine and promedol (drowsiness, lethargy, hypoventilation of the lungs).

The developed method of postoperative pain relief on the basis of “T” in combination with one of the analgesic agents of peripheral action is effective, safe, allows to carry out anesthesia of the patient in the general ward, without special intensive observation.


Tramadol (Tramal) occupies a special place among all opioid analgesics, which is determined by the originality of the mechanism of central action and clinical pharmacology. It differs from traditional narcotic analgesics of morphine series with less pronounced analgesic effect, but at the same time less pronounced side effects. In analgesic doses, he is deprived of the main dangerous properties of morphine and its analogues – a depressive effect on vital functions and the ability to induce opioid dependence. Therefore, it is safer than other opioids and is not counted as a narcotic, but as a potent remedy. Tramadol has advantages over traditional opioid analogous analgesic potency – codeine, belonging to a number of drugs and not having so many diverse non-invasive and injective forms.

All these features of tramadol make it possible to use it successfully and widely for the treatment of acute and chronic pain syndromes of moderate intensity in various fields of medicine, including oncology and surgery, where its role is particularly great.

Buy Alli Online

Full description

Alli slimming pills are designed to balance nutrition. Taking them, you do not have to give up the delicious food. You can still eat your favorite foods, while Alli will block the absorption of fats, which are so harmful to your figure. This remedy is especially good when you overeat after a festive feast, although, in principle, can be used for long-term weight loss.

Alli pills for weight loss are a licensed drug that is considered very effective. But its use must be combined with other ways to reduce weight. The best approach is an integrated approach that includes an active lifestyle, regular exercise and dietary nutrition. Then Alli will act much more efficiently. So, it’s just a kind of “assistant” on the way to achieving the figure of your dreams, but not the main tool. With him, you are just much quicker and easier to get the desired result.

Drug action

The main active substance is orlistat. It also prevents the absorption of fat, so that they simply leave the body in a natural way, and not postponed. Thus, the drug blocks about 25% of the incoming fats. So fat stores are postponed much less. And for six months of taking Alli, you can reduce the waist by 4.5 cm, and over a year – by more than 5 cm.

But, at the same time, such tablets are recommended to observe a low-calorie diet, and also devotes even a little time to regular sports activities. With the help of Alli tablets for weight loss, you can only strengthen the effect of these techniques and it is easier to transfer them.

Rules for the use of tablets Alli for the most effective result:

  • Follow a diet.
  • At least 20 minutes every day to exercise. For example, sports walking or running.
  • Take Alli tablets with each meal.

The use of Alli tablets and diet

Dietary meals when using Alli tablets can be simple. The diet should be low-calorie, but you do not have to count the calories yourself. After all, whatever you eat, the calorie content of food when using Alli tablets will be much less.

It is best to eat, as expected, 3 times a day. If desired, you can even arrange 2 light snacks between the main meals. The menu should consist mainly of carbohydrates: cereals, muesli, grain bread, breakfast cereals. The listed products are best included in every meal. In this case, the products should not have a lot of sugar.

Do not forget also about vegetables and fruits. As a rule, they form the basis of dietary nutrition. Fresh vegetables and fruits should be found in your menu at least 5 times.

But the consumption of protein products is better to reduce. So meat, poultry and fish is better to eat less. Maximum – one small portion a day.

Also, the amount of fat should be regulated, since there should be less of them in the dietary food system. For one meal – no more than 15 g. This is especially important when taking Alli slimming pills, as they operate under conditions of limited intake of fats.

You can accept the current recommendations, or you can develop your own food system. But it is important to follow the diet clearly. In addition, it is not superfluous to combine the intake of this drug with the vitamin-mineral complex.


It should also be remembered that Alli slimming pills are not absolutely safe for health at all. You can not drink them all. For example, this drug is not suitable for hypertensive patients, pregnant women, people with bowel disease, and breastfeeding mothers. In addition, it is not desirable to take it for children and the elderly.

And even if you personally do not have any contraindications, first you need to think about a balanced nutrition system, and only then take on weight loss with the help of Alai. Otherwise, there is no sense in its use.

Side effects

When taking Alli tablets for weight loss, side effects on the gastrointestinal tract are most often observed. So there can be a swelling, diarrhea, excessive gas formation. All this happens, as a rule, if you use this drug, not observing the right diet, especially if you eat fatty foods.

Diet pills Alli

The products of the German company GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Helsker enjoy wide popularity due to the guaranteed high effect and impeccable quality. Increased demand is observed on the drug series Alli – a pill that promotes rapid and simple weight loss. They are certified in Russia, sold officially and allow you to fight and extra pounds without much effort.

Using the drug Alli for weight loss, the first results can be seen after a few weeks of taking. The product effectively counteracts the absorption of fats, due to which their deposits do not occur. As practice shows, the decrease in the waist by 4-5 centimeters occurs already during the first half of the year.

The drug Alli – pills for weight loss, not having a negative effect on the body. To improve the effectiveness of their intake, it is recommended to adhere to dietary rules. This will get a positive result faster.


In 1 capsule 60 mg of orlistat.

Form of issue


Pharmachologic effect



Alli is an inhibitor of lipases. The active substance orlistat inhibits the active part of the lipase molecule in the gastrointestinal tract and suppresses the cleavage of fats.

In addition, having a similarity in structure with triglycerides, it binds to them. As a result, 30% of triglycerides are not absorbed. With constant admission, this leads to a decrease in body weight. Suppressing lipases, also reduces the solubility and absorption of cholesterol. Thus, a positive effect on the lipid profile of the blood.

It is distinguished by high selectivity, therefore it does not affect the processes of carbohydrate and protein digestion and their absorption. Slightly impaired absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. After cancellation, lipase activity is restored.


Slightly absorbed, does not have a resorptive effect. With multiple reception of accumulation does not occur. The intestine releases 83% of the unchanged active substance. Kidneys – less than 2%.

Indications for use

  • In combination with a low-calorie diet is used
  • For the treatment of obesity;
  • Reducing the risk of losing weight;
  • Maintenance of body weight in the presence of risk factors (dyslipidemia, diabetes, high blood pressure).


  • hypersensitivity;
  • cholestasis;
  • pregnancy, lactation;
  • malabsorption syndrome.

Common side effects

  • “fat” feces;
  • the urge to defecate;
  • more bowel movements;
  • oily discharge from the rectum;
  • gas evolution;
  • fecal incontinence.

These undesirable reactions from the gastrointestinal tract are observed, on average, within 3 months from the beginning of admission and are more pronounced in the first year of treatment.

Less common side reactions

  • headache, dizziness;
  • discomfort in the abdomen and rectum;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • fatigue;
  • respiratory infections;
  • back pain, arthralgia;
  • irregular monthly;
  • urinary tract infection;
  • dry skin;
  • rash;
  • individual cases of hepatitis.

Alli, instructions for use (Method and dosage)

Drug Alli take inside 2 capsules (120 mg) during meals 3 times a day. With a low fat content in food, you can skip the drug. An additional effect is not observed when taking more than 360 mg per day.

At the time of treatment, it is necessary to adhere to the low-fat diet (fats less than 30% of the daily calorie content). It is recommended to take fat-soluble vitamins, which are taken before bedtime.


No cases of overdose have been reported.


Does not interact with alcohol. Reduces the absorption of beta-carotene and vitamin E. Increases the bioavailability of Pravastatin, and this combination with intensifies the hypolipidemic effect.

Since weight loss leads to improved metabolism in diabetes mellitus, it may be necessary to reduce doses of hypoglycemic agents or insulin.

5 testimonials about alli

Layla M. – 02.08.17 19:57:46

The “Alli” tablets are really good, having read the reviews of the above-mentioned people, I want to add from myself. I took them in the amount of 60 grams and I can say that these pills will help only if you combine them with the right diet and good daily exercise. They will help you to throw off unwanted kilograms and this is really true, but you need to be very careful with them, because they can severely harm the body if they are not taken correctly. Be careful.

Anna T. – 24.03.17 17:12:38

I do not know who helped these pills, but my friend took them on advice, and the result as such was not. Perhaps the course of admission was not great, maybe the pill just did not fit my friend, but all that was left in her weight – it’s a couple of pounds. and a little belly. But in fact all this can be removed and malomalskoy diet, from tablets, I was waiting for a better result.

Oksana S. – 11.03.17 11:23:48

“Alli” is really an original means for losing weight, but we somehow forget that it works only in combination with a moderately high-calorie diet. Which means – if you allow yourself to eat a little more fat than usual, guaranteed indigestion. Therefore, I advise you to think carefully before taking it, or to try first a small amount, to start not with 120 mg, as written in the instructions, but at least with 50 mg to see how your body will react.

Marina D. – 25.11.16 23:57:03

Effective tablets. I took two days, my stomach went away. Weighed, was stunned – minus 2 kilos. This is given that she ate abundantly, did not limit herself. But only the side, alas, did not wait. After a week, the liver began to ache a bit, constipation began. I washed my head, saw a large block of fallen hair in the tub. Perhaps a coincidence, but never the hair so much did not climb. The body of the pill is loaded immensely, it’s better to have diets plus reinforced physical training.

Ekaterina K. – 19.11.16 20:42:01

Alli – a good tool for weight loss, which my friend advised, she said that it is an inhibitor of lipases. When administered orally, the drug inhibits gastric and pancreatic lipases, so the degradation of dietary fats is impaired and their absorption from the digestive tract decreases. Thanks to this drug, I dropped 10 extra pounds and I’m not going to stop, because I can see how my husband’s eyes caught fire when he sees me.

Additional information about the drug alli.


One capsule contains:

Active substance: orlistat 60 mg.

Excipients: microcrystalline cellulose, sodium carboxymethyl starch, sodium lauryl sulfate, povidone, talc; capsule: gelatin, titanium dioxide, indigocarmine, sodium lauryl sulfate, sorbitan laurate, black opacode ink (Opacode) S-1-17822 / 23 (shellac, iron oxide ferric oxide E172, propylene glycol); gelatinous fringe: gelatin, polysorbate-80, indigocarmine.


Hard gelatin capsules No. 2, with an opaque turquoise cap, an opaque turquoise shell, with a blue border; The inscription “alli” is printed in black ink on the lid. The contents of the capsules are white or almost white granules.

Pregnancy and lactation:

Alli should not be used during pregnancy due to the lack of reliable clinical data confirming the safety of its use.

It is not established whether orlistat penetrates into breast milk, and therefore Allie’s use during lactation (breastfeeding) is not recommended.


Cyclosporine. Several studies of the drug interaction of cyclosporin, when used simultaneously with orlistat, report a decrease in the plasma cyclosporine concentration. Potentially, this can lead to a decrease in the immunosuppressive effectiveness of the latter. The simultaneous use of orlistat and cyclosporine is contraindicated.

Indirect anticoagulants. With the simultaneous use of warfarin or other oral anticoagulants with orlistat may change the value of INR.

Fat-soluble vitamins. The intake of orlistat can potentially impair the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K).

Acarbose. Due to the lack of data on pharmacokinetic interactions, it is not recommended to use orlistat together with acarbose.

Amiodarone. At simultaneous application with orlistatom there was a decrease in the level of amiodarone in the plasma after a single dose. The clinical significance of this effect for patients taking amiodarone is unclear. Simultaneous use of orlistat and amiodarone is possible only on the advice of a doctor.

Lack of interaction. Orlistat does not interact with amitriptyline, phenytoin, fluoxetine, sibutramine, phentermine; atorvastatin, pravastatin, fibrates; biguanides; digoxin, nifedipine, losartan; alcohol.

Special instructions about Alli:

Diet and exercise are an integral part of the program to reduce body weight. It is recommended to begin to follow the diet and exercise before starting orlistat.

Taking orlistat, it is necessary to adhere to a fractional balanced, moderately hypocaloric diet, with a fat content of not more than 30% of the daily caloric intake (for example, with a diet of 2000 kcal / not more than 66 g / day). Patients should adhere to the recommendations received on diet and physical activity both during and after discontinuation of the drug.

The use of orlistat leads to an increase in the amount of fats in the stool after 24-48 hours after the start of the admission. After discontinuation of the use of the drug, the fat content in the feces usually returns to the initial for 48-72 hours. The likelihood of side effects from the gastrointestinal tract increases when taking orlistat with food containing a large amount of fat.

The intake of orlistat can potentially impair the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K, beta-carotene). In the vast majority of patients who received orlistat during four-year clinical trials, the concentrations of vitamins A, D, E and K, beta-carotene were within the normal range. With a preventive purpose, it is recommended to take a multivitamin for the night.

Since weight loss is usually accompanied by an improvement in carbohydrate metabolism, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus should first consult with a physician before starting to take orlistat, in order to adjust the dose of hypoglycemic drugs if necessary. Decreased body weight during treatment can be accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure and cholesterol. Patients taking drugs for the treatment of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia should consult a physician to adjust the doses of the above drugs if necessary.

In clinical studies, there was no interaction between oral contraceptives and orthostat. However, orlistat may indirectly reduce the bioavailability of oral contraceptives, which can lead to the development of unwanted pregnancies. It is recommended to use additional methods of contraception in case of development of acute diarrhea.

Patients suffering from kidney disease should consult with a doctor, as possible the development of hyperoxaluria and nephropathy. Patients taking amiodarone, warfarin, or other oral anticoagulants also need to consult a doctor before starting treatment with orlistat, as there may be changes in the INR indicator.

Patients should stop taking orlistat and consult a doctor if symptoms such as icteric staining of the sclera or skin, itching, darkening of the urine and loss of appetite occur.