Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that are based on dystrophic and sclerotic processes in heart cells (cardiomyocytes).
The types of cardiomyopathy are distinguished:
- dilated cardiomyopathy (congestive);
- hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (asymmetric and symmetric; obstructive and non-obstructive);
- restrictive (obliterating and diffuse) cardiomyopathy;
- arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.
Unfortunately, scientists have not yet fully established the etiology of the disease. Possible causes of cardiomyopathy affecting the heart:
- viral infections ( herpes virus , influenza , etc.);
- hereditary predisposition (improper formation and functioning of muscle fibers);
- previous myocarditis ;
- damage to cardiomyocytes with toxic substances, allergens;
- endocrine system disorders;
- disorders of the immune system.
Symptoms of Cardiomyopathy
Symptoms characteristic of cardiomyopathy are:
- severe chest pain ;
- shortness of breath ;
- swelling of the extremities;
- tachycardia .
The need to cardiomyopathy diagnosis carries a doctor – a cardiologist , for which holds:
- electrocardiogram ;
- X-ray examination of the lungs ;
- echocardiography ;
- magnetic resonance imaging of the heart ;
- sounding of heart cavities;
- multispiral CT cardiography.
For the disease “cardiomyopathy” no treatment . All measures are aimed at preventing complications. So, therapy may include:
- cardiac glycosides;
- antiarrhythmic drugs;
- anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents;
- surgical intervention (resection of a hypertrophied portion of the interventricular septum, mitral valve prosthetics, heart transplantation).
Patients should monitor physical activity and follow a special diet with a limited intake of animal fats and salt.
If you do not establish in a timely manner how to treat cardiomyopathy, this can lead to the development of complications, such as:
- heart failure ;
- arterial and pulmonary thromboembolism;
- conduction disorders of the heart;
- severe arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation, ventricular extrasystole, paroxysmal tachycardia);
- sudden cardiac death syndrome.
Women should abstain from pregnancy because of the high probability of death.
After diagnosis of the disease, 5-year survival is 30% of cases. With systematic treatment, stabilization is possible. There are cases when patients after heart transplantation operations have lived for more than 10 years.