Cardiosclerosis (from Greek kardia – heart and skleros – hard, hard) – a disease based on the development of connective (scar) tissue in the heart muscle resulting from inflammation or insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle. Scar tissue replaces the dying fibers of the heart muscle. Causes. The death of muscle fibers leads to acute or chronic inflammation of the heart muscle – myocarditis (for various infectious diseases, rheumatism, etc.) or a violation of its nutrition due to narrowing of the coronary (coronary) vessels of the heart due to atherosclerosis, prolonged alcohol abuse and metabolic disorders.
Atherosclerotic narrowing of the vessels that feed the heart muscle with the usually concomitant tendency of the vessels of the heart to spasmodic contractions leads to a disruption in the nutrition of the heart, which may result in sudden necrosis of the muscle areas – myocardial infarction or gradual death of muscle fibers with their replacement by scar tissue – cardiosclerosis .
With small degrees of cardiosclerosis, the patient does not experience any pain and is fully functional, since along with the death of myocardial fibers, new muscle fibers are formed, and intact fibers are thickened, that is, hypertrophied.
With significant areas of muscle tissue damage and their replacement with scar tissue, the heart expands, which leads to a violation of its function. Cardiosclerosis in the initial stages is manifested by rapid fatigability, shortness of breath during physical exertion, and increased heart rate. In the future, circulatory disorders, signs of heart failure, and swelling in the legs may occur . The diagnosis is specified after an electrocardiogram, echocardiography.
Prevention comes down to fighting infections, rheumatism, atherosclerosis, to strengthening the heart muscle by regular physical education, ensuring normal nutrition, sleep, and regimen .