Aneurysm (from the Greek. Aneuryno – expand) – limited expansion of the artery, protrusion of its wall. There are 2 types of aneurysms.
- True aneurysm sac aneurysm – bulging of the entire vessel wall, paying the call of all its layers. True aneurysms can vstre chatsya all arte riyah: aortic aneurysm, cerebrovascular, cardiac, peripheral vascular disease, but most often they develop in the aorta. Vein aneurysm also occurs.
- False aneurysm – defect in the inner and middle layer of the vessel wall, you pyachivanie its outer layer. False aneurysms, which develop at the defect (ulcer) artery wall, and are most often injury ical, formed blood extravasated in okra zhayuschie tissue injury or rupture the artery. Walls form around the spilled blood – an aneurysmal sac forms , having communication with the wounded artery and pulsating simultaneously with it. Thinning gradually, the aneurysm may erupt.
So the causes of cerebral aneurysms include:
- congenital abnormalities of blood vessels,
- genetic abnormalities
- head injuries, injuries,
- diseases of the vascular system,
- deposition of cholesterol plaques on the walls of blood vessels.
Many of these causes also apply to other forms of aneurysm.
The causes of A nevrizmy aorta are:
- wall change at ateroskle rose,
- hypertonic disease,
- congenital defects of the aorta,
- syphilitic lesion of its walls,
- trauma to the abdominal and chest cavity
- sometimes after myocardial infarction.
Expansion aor you when it is for aneurysm may suffice entire circle NOSTA aorta (t. Called. Fusiform aneurysm) or only defined ny its portion ( mesh kovidnaya aneurysm).
Peripheral aneurysm occurs:
- due to injuries
- vascular erosion,
- atherosclerosis and congenital pathologies.
Expansion aor you when it is for aneurysm may suffice entire circle NOSTA aorta (t. Called. Fusiform aneurysm ) or only defined ny its portion ( mesh kovidnaya aneurysm ).
Aortic aneurysm often develops in its initial, piles Noah parts. The development is very slow, over several years, patients often do not present long nickname FIR complaints. However, with the passage of time increases scheesya protrusion begins to compress the adjacent organs – other blood vessels of the chest Polo STI, nerves, trachea, esophagus. Various painful phenomena occur: cough, chest pain, shortness of breath. With untimely and incorrect treatment of an aortic aneurysm, its wall becomes thinner, which can lead to rupture of the aorta and fatal bleeding.
Aneurysm of the heart occurs as a complication of myocardial infarction, injuries and myocarditis. Any of the forms of aneurysm may be asymptomatic, a feeling of squeezing and tingling in the area of its occurrence may appear. due to the pressure of the aneurysm on neighboring structures. When the aneurysm ruptures, there is an acute sharp pain in the area of localization of the aneurysm, increasing weakness up to the loss of consciousness due to blood loss. The disease is largely dependent on the living conditions: the most harmful with aortic aneurysm on the physical conjugation, emotional and physical stress, contributing to higher NIJ blood pressure.
In medical practice, aneurysms are usually detected by chance.
Aneurysms can be detected with:
- Aortography , X-ray or ultrasound.
The most effective way to diagnose brain aneurysm is:
- Angiographic examination of blood vessels, dopplerography and computed tomography.
Aneurysm of the heart is identified when
- ECG, echocardiography (echocardiography).
- With an x-ray of the chest , an aneurysm located on the front wall of the ventricle (left) can be detected.
TREATMENT OF ANEURISM.
The treatment of aneurysms is mainly surgical . Treatment of aortic aneurysm also depends on the degree of its localization and danger. But when aneurysms are detected in the initial stage, in some cases, conservative treatment is carried out to stop the progression of the disease.
- strict bed rest is required
- regular monitoring of blood pressure,
- treatment should be directed to the underlying disease (atherosclerosis, syphilis),
- it is necessary to regularly take drugs that lower blood pressure and prevent the occurrence of arrhythmias,
- provide physical and mental peace to the patient.
Traumatic aneurysm obja optionally subject to surgical treatment – or dressing an injured vessel wall by its restoring crosslinking.