General information about steroids

Today, almost everyone with the word steroids immediately thinks about anabolic steroids, known to amateurs under the name “anabolic”. In this case, it is often forgotten that “steroids” is the general name of a whole group of various steroid hormones. Among them – hormones of the adrenal cortex (gluco- and mineralcorticoids), female sex hormones (estrogens and gestagens), as well as male sex hormones (androgens). In this book, we will only talk about the last – androgens. With their most important representative, testosterone, the reader was already introduced in the previous chapter. Therefore, henceforth, with the word “steroids” we mean anabolic-androgenic steroids.

Anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic derived formulations similar in some respects to the natural male hormone, androgen, testosterone. The main reason for their development was the intention to create a drug that would have high anabolic qualities of testosterone, but at the same time exclude its strong androgenic capabilities. “Great efforts were made to create a pure anabolic without an admixture of androgenic” side effects “(Kakhakian, 1976, Kruskemper, 1965).” (Quoting from “Doping – Prohibited Drugs in Sport”, p. 51, Dirk Klasing, Manfred Donicke, etc.). To realize this idea, huge changes were made to the steroid molecule. The newly created steroids differ at that time either by an anabolic androgenic function that is underestimated, or they have increased effectiveness in relation to both qualities. Some steroids have received such structural changes that have led to even higher androgenicity and an underestimation of anabolic activity. This explains the differences in action, effectiveness, side effects of existing steroids. The creation of pure anabolic, where the anabolic and androgenic qualities of the steroid would be completely disrupted, failed. Therefore, the so-called anabolic steroid (anabolic) has a certain proportion of androgenic effect, and vice versa, the androgenic steroid (androgen) has anabolic qualities.

And so you think that to quickly gain strength and build muscle mass, it is better to use an anabolic steroid with minimal androgenicity. Nothing like this, because. The name “anabolic steroid” does not tell you anything about the power of anabolic effects, it is known only that the anabolic-androgen ratio of the original testosterone-ancestor is displaced here.To determine this ratio and (determine) the steroid as anabolic or androgen, testosterone serves as a parameter. , Steroids in which androgenic qualities are reduced are defined as “anabolic steroids,” and those with androgenic qualities are higher “androgenic steroids.” What’s the problem? The decrease in androgenic steroids The prescription of the drug inevitably leads to a decrease in its anabolic qualities, so the anabolic is less androgynous than the original testosterone, but at the same time it also has lower anabolic qualities.When reading the following chapters, the reader will understand that the so-called “mass steroids” occur exclusively From the group of androgenic steroids, where, along with the enhanced androgenic qualities, very strong anabolic ones are observed: “… the best androgen, or rather testosterone, is the most important anabolic for a man.” (From “Doping – Prohibited Drugs in Sport”, Dirk Clazing, Manfred Donicke, etc.). Before the athlete a dilemma arises, what to choose, because Androgenic steroids are not only strong in relation to their anabolic qualities, but also unfortunately have a lot of side effects. From this follows: the more effective the steroid, the more androgen it is, and, consequently, it is more dangerous for the organism.

Therefore, one should not agree with the opinion that is often heard today everywhere that anabolic steroids cause persistent non-reversible damages in their patients. This is partly true, and for most side effects, androgenic steroids are responsible. But the general opinion: “Steroids destroy the liver” is absurd, because Steroid steroid strife.

The first anabolic / androgenic steroids officially entered the trade in the early 50’s. And after a decade, most of the products sold today has been on the market. Because Recently, only a small number of new drugs have appeared, these above mentioned are only relatively called old. Of course, over the years there have been some changes, especially regarding the steroid sector of the drug. Many drugs are withdrawn from trade, some have arisen in other countries under a different name and are being sold again, in the 80s a few new ones were added. Steroids are still considered to be the most effective means for improving sports achievements. Back in the 50s they are firmly won its place in the world of sports. A significant role in the development of the relationship between steroids and sports was played by the introduction of dianabol, an oral steroid that was created by the team doctor, American weightlifters, Dr. John Ziegler, in his joint work with the pharmaceutical company CIABA in 1956. This drug and its followers found their place in the late 50’s, first among weightlifters, then spread widely in all other sports fields. Then his lightning spread in the 60-70s was promoted by the movement “Voddybulding”. Increasingly, they began to apply and Female athletes. In 1974, the International Olympic Committee made decisions on the introduction of anabolic drugs into the general list of doping.

“The 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal were the first where anabolic control was conducted.” (From “Doping in Sport” Zeling, Pollert, Nakfor). To date, there has been an unprecedented distribution of these medicines, as claimed in his book “Records with the help of doping?” Melvin X. Williams: “Anabolic steroids are a group of drugs that look like an epidemic in sports.” It is estimated that more than a million Americans “take anabolic steroids, including athletes and athletes of all age groups, from professionals to teenagers – schoolchildren. A black market has risen, receiving an annual income of about 100 mil. From steroid trade. $. “One of the reasons for the growing use of anabolic / androgenic steroids is the growing popularity of bodybuilding.” It’s clear that bodybuilding is in close connection with the spread of steroids, consumption of which is in direct proportion to the growing love for bodybuilding. “When in the 1970s, Bodybuilding, steroids became even more famous.In the 80’s when this sport got even wider, it happened with steroids.At the end of this decade, when bodybuilding became popular in the woo ah it touched and steroids. ” (“Handbook of Anabolic”, 6th issue, 1991, UN Phillips). And while we admire the muscles of the human body, while the use of anabolic / androgenic steroids has nothing to counteract from natural preparations, it is impossible to achieve the athletes’ refusal to take these pharmaceuticals. The popularity of Clenbuterol shows that it helps athletes to reach their goal faster. And if the growth hormones were on sale at reasonable prices, then they would be equally widespread as steroids.

And yet, steroids are not a miracle cure. Its effectiveness depends on such factors as training, nutrition, mood, the genetic predisposition of each individual athlete. The decisive factor is the last one listed, showing how much the athlete corresponds to one or another steroid of genetics.

Mode of action of steroids.

The physiology of anabolic / androgenic steroids is a complex topic. An exact description of all the biochemical processes occurring in the human body when taking steroids is impossible. And yet, we would like to give the reader a general overview of these processes, t. Some of their knowledge and understanding are essential. Because The athlete is always interested only in stimulating the achievement of the qualities of steroids, we want to talk in this chapter mainly about their effect on the muscle cell.

Steroids are either administered intramuscularly or taken orally. When injected, the substance enters directly into the blood, in the form of a tablet, passes through the gastrointestinal tract to the liver, where it either completely or partially breaks down, or enters the bloodstream in its original state. Accepted steroid enters the blood in the form of numerous steroid molecules that move along the bloodstream throughout the body. Each steroid molecule carries information that it must convey to certain cell bodies. The cells for this purpose have different kinds of receptors on their outer membrane. One of them is a steroid receptor, which is found in large quantities in muscle cells. Steroid receptors and steroid molecules – the same size and shape: fit each other like a key to the lock. The steroid receptor takes a steroid molecule, passing all other types of molecules past. The same happens with other types of receptors that do not perceive steroid molecules, because Are only for “their” molecules. When the steroid receptor and the steroid molecule combine into a complex, the molecule is capable of transmitting information to the muscle cell. It should be noted that most of the steroid molecules are in the blood in a bound state, forming compounds with proteins: the sex hormone binding globulin. This means that 98% of the steroid molecules in the blood are bound and only 1-2% in the free state. The latter just refer to steroid molecules, capable of forming a steroid-receptor complex. Bound steroid molecules are a passive part. In such a state the muscle cell does not take them. Precision for the sake of say that this percentage ratio fluctuates.

The formed steroid-receptor complex is directed to the nucleus of the cell, where it joins certain segments on DNA segments of nucleic acids (dysoribonucleic acids). Then follows the transcription, i.e. The DNA is imprinted. The resulting ribonucleic acid leaves the cell nucleus and in the cytoplasm attaches to the RNA located here, where an increase in protein synthesis takes place via translation. In combination with intensive anabolic exercises with lifting weights, this leads to a transverse increase in the muscle cell (muscle hypertrophy). Enhanced protein synthesis is considered as the main effect of steroids on the muscle cell, while steroid molecules carry other important information for athletes. Much speaks in favor of the fact that steroids also have strong anti-catabolic effects. Thanks to them, the percentage of protein that breaks down in the muscle cell is reduced. In addition, steroid molecules block, located on the membrane of the muscle cell, receptors of cortisol. And the cortisol produced by the body, a strong catabolic hormone, loses its ability and the muscle cell does not lose protein.

Another advantage of steroids is that they increase the synthesis of creatine phosphate (CF) in the muscle cell. KF plays a crucial role in the recovery of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a prerequisite for all muscle movements, because Is a combustible material, a necessary cage for the performance of work. ATP accumulates in the muscle cell and, when needed, turns into adenosine diphosphate. This process releases energy that allows the muscle cell to work. The reverse process of ADP in ATP also requires CF. The more it is, the faster this recovery and the more ATP is at the disposal of the muscle cell. In practice, this means that the muscle becomes stronger, but no more. The one who even once used the steroid Oxandrolone, knows that this drug works mainly on muscle strength. The fact is that it causes an increased synthesis of CF in the muscle cell. Another factor that is useful to athletes is that steroids accumulate carbohydrates in the muscle cell in the form of glycogen. This process is accompanied by an increased accumulation of fluid, which together with an increased muscle volume entails both an improvement in muscle endurance and an increased burst of strength. Steroids reduce the production of endogenous insulin. The muscle cell can, with their intake, absorb nutrients (carbohydrates in the form of glycogen and protein in the form of amino acids) in a lesser dependence on insulin. This gives athletes the opportunity to reduce the percentage of fat and improve the hardness of muscles, tk. Insulin, along with its quality of a strong anabolic hormone, turns glucose into glycerol and, ultimately, into a triglyceride, which leads to the growth of fat cells.

Anyone who has ever tried steroids knows that during the training in the involved muscles the “pump effect” is clearly observed, which the professionals call “steroid pampus”. The fact is that steroids increase the volume of blood and the number of red blood cells in the human body. Muscles acquire a more voluminous appearance. Along with these advantages, an increased flow of blood to the muscle cell increases the delivery of nutrients to it. Substantially high blood volume is provided by such androgenic steroids as Dianabol, Testosterone and, above all, Anapolon, which is partially expressed in the strong, even painful effect of the pump during exercise. Associated with this phenomenon of increased supply of oxygen to the body, runners are often used for medium and short distances. After the steroid-receptor complex fulfills its duty in the nucleus of the cell, the steroid molecule returns to the bloodstream and either for some time again becomes suitable for the above described function, or becomes an inactive molecule and eventually is excreted through the urine. Not all steroid molecules in the blood immediately connect to the sex hormone binding globulin or are in a free, active state. Some of them are immediately used by the body in the process of metabolism and are derived from it. Another part can be turned into an organism into female sex hormones – estrogens. This phenomenon is called aromatization and seems at first glance to be something unthinkable. But, if we consider the structure of the male sex hormone testosterone and female Estradiol closer, it catches the eye that they are very similar. The organism easily copes with the task (development) of the necessary structural changes in the molecule by means of enzymes. Some steroid molecules are transformed, like individual endogenous and exogenous parts of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DNT). It has a greater chemical affinity for the receptors of the muscle cell than testosterone itself, and therefore some experts believe that dihydrotestosterone is a more potent hormone compared to both male and female sex hormones, while it also has a high binding potential for Receptors (thyroid gland) of the sebaceous glands and their hair follicles. Interestingly, it can not turn into estrogens. Ultimately, all these molecules after a while are excreted from the body with urine.

We are aware that when reading this chapter, this or that question remains for you not cut off and that not all of you have become immediately clear and understandable because of a heap of complex information. And yet the athlete should be given a definite look at the processes taking place in the human body when taking steroids in order to understand the different qualities and types of effects of the drugs described below.

local_offerevent_note June 2, 2017

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