Chronic heart failure is one of the most common complications of diseases of the cardiovascular system. Any heart disease leads to a decrease in the ability of the heart to provide the body with a sufficient flow of blood. Those. to a decrease in its pumping function. Growing heart failure over time exceeds the disease that caused this heart failure in terms of danger to the patient’s life .
More often, chronic heart failure is caused by coronary heart disease (CHD) , myocardial infarction , arterial hypertension, cardiomyopathy , heart valve defects. In many cases, it is heart failure that causes death and, according to American researchers, reduces the patient’s quality of life by 81%. Usually heart failure develops slowly. The mechanism of its development includes many stages. The patient’s heart disease leads to an increase in the load on the left ventricle. To cope with the increased load, the heart muscle hypertrophies (increases in volume, thickens) and maintains normal blood circulation for some time. However, in the most hypertrophied heart muscle, nutrition and oxygen delivery are disturbed, because the vascular system of the heart is not designed for its increasing volume.
There is sclerosis of muscle tissue and a whole cascade of other changes, which, in the end, lead to a violation of the function of the heart muscle, primarily to a violation of its contraction, which causes insufficient discharge of blood into the vessels, and relaxation, which causes a deterioration in the nutrition of the heart itself. For some time, the body tries to help the heart: the amount of hormones in the blood changes, small arteries contract, the work of the kidneys, lungs and muscles changes. With the further course of the disease, the supply of compensatory capabilities of the body is depleted. The heart begins to beat faster. It does not have time to pump all the blood first from the large circle of blood circulation (because the more loaded left ventricle suffers first), and then from the small one.