Depending on which part of the conduction system of the heart there are disorders, arrhythmias are divided into: Atrial ( supraventricular ) and Ventricular.
- An increase in heart rate ( over 90 beats per 1 minute) is called tachycardia. The heart rate can increase with physical or emotional stress (this is a normal reaction of a healthy heart), an increase in body temperature (it is believed that a temperature increase of 1 ° leads to an increase in heart rate by 10 beats per 1 minute). Tachycardia can be a sign of so many diseases, but it can also be a variant of the norm.
- A decrease in heart rate (less than 60 beats per 1 minute) is called Bradycardia . Bradycardia is possible with many heart and non-cardiac diseases. It is also found in absolutely healthy people, and, as a rule, is noted in athletes. Moderate bradycardia (50–55 strokes per 1 minute) creates favorable conditions for blood supply to the heart muscle, since blood can come to it only when it is in a state of relaxation (i.e. between contractions).
- The appearance of premature contractions in the correct rhythm of heart contractions is called Extrasystole. The most common causes of extrasystole are vegetative-vascular dystonia, myocarditis, gallbladder disease, smoking, stress.
- There are also so-called Paroxysmal rhythm disturbances ( paroxysm – an attack, a sudden condition ). An apparently healthy person suddenly has a fast heartbeat – rhythmic or irregular, an attempt to calculate the pulse for an inexperienced person is impossible, its frequency exceeds 150-200 beats per 1 minute. If the attack lasts longer than 1–1.5 hours, shortness of breath and pain in the heart area appear. Often a heart attack ends as suddenly as it started. This should not be reassuring. If arrhythmias are considered a danger signal, then paroxysmal disorders are the most serious of them.
- Heart rhythm disturbances with snoring and respiratory arrest in a dream are very specific. At the moment of stopping breathing, bradycardia develops , and in the ventilation phase (when a person begins to breathe) after such a stop, tachycardia is noted . Sometimes the oscillation range is 30–40 beats per 1 minute, and these jumps can be repeated every minute, or even more often. A quick change in the frequency and regularity of the heart rhythm or its sudden slowdown leads to severe violations of the heart: the amount of blood ejected into the aorta decreases, blood pressure becomes unstable, blood circulation parameters are disturbed. During this period, a person may experience sudden severe dizziness or even lose consciousness. In such cases, it is mandatory to consult a doctor to identify arrhythmias as a possible cause of this condition.
- One of the most common rhythm disturbances is atrial fibrillation ( atrial fibrillation ) – a violation of the normal (sinus) heart rhythm, atria are reduced randomly, erratically, as if trembling, “flicker”. At the same time, the ventricles also begin to contract completely irregularly and more often. A random contraction of the atria and ventricles occurs . There are paroxysmal (paroxysmal) and permanent forms of atrial fibrillation. Permanent atrial fibrillation can be tachyarrhythmic (fast), with a pulse from 90 to 150-180 beats per 1 minute, and bradyarrhythmic (slow), in which the heart rate does not exceed 60-80 beats per 1 min. The tachyarrhythmic form is accompanied by a feeling of palpitations, tremors in the chest, general agitation, weakness. With the bradyarrhythmic form of atrial fibrillation, patients usually do not feel arrhythmias, and often it is detected only with an electrocardiographic study.
Arrhythmia can pass on its own. If it persists for several hours or complications arise, you should immediately seek medical help.
But even if the arrhythmia disappeared by itself, you should not postpone the visit to the cardiologist. Repeated rhythm disturbances can occur at any time and end tragically.
Often patients do not feel arrhythmias. The main symptom of arrhythmia is a feeling of unnecessary or missed heartbeats, too fast or slow heartbeats. Possible weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, blanching of the skin, pain in the heart, etc.
- To determine the cause of arrhythmias, electrocardiography (ECG) is performed ,
- ECG monitoring (recording the work of the heart during the day on a magnetic carrier),